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В Китае груша известна с незапамятных времен. Об этом свидетельствуют неоднократные упоминания о её деревьях в древнейшем памятнике китайской культуры «Каноне стихов» (XI—VI вв. до н. э.). Во многих стихотворениях этого канона присутствует сюжет одиноко растущего дерева груши, символизирующий одиночество и печаль.

Издавна особое место в китайской культуре занимают и белоснежные цветущие грушевые деревья. На протяжении веков их вид и благоухание вдохновляют поэтов и художников.

Вряд ли возможно перечислить все стихи китайских поэтов, посвящённые цветению груши. Часто на тему стихотворения одного поэта слагались собственные стихи. Большой популярностью, например, пользовалось стихотворение Ван Вэя (701—761 гг.) «Лепестки грушевых цветов у левых дворцовых ворот»:

Нехотя слетают
На траву у крыльца,
Ветерок относит
Их легко от дверей.
Жёлтой иволге любо
Шалить без конца —
С лепестком впорхнула
В палаты дворца.*

*Перевод А. А. Штейнберга.

Холодная их красота —
Точь-в-точь нетронутый снег.
Чуть слышимый аромат
В одежды мои проник.
А вешний ветр ни на миг
Не замедляет бег, —
Пригнал к нефриту крыльца,
Душистый сугроб воздвиг*

Цю Вэй (694—789 гг.)

Прелестно цветут
И улыбкой радуют взгляд.
Сдается: вот-вот
С мотыльками вспорхнут наравне.
Влетает порой
Вешний ветр сквозь двери палат —
Два-три лепестка
Опустились на платье ко мне*.

Хуанфу Жань (716—769 гг.)

Разумеется, утончённый обычай любования цветением грушевых деревьев сохранился и до наших дней. Ежегодно в апреле во многих регионах Китая проводятся чрезвычайно красочные мероприятия — так называемые «Праздники цветения груш», привлекающие не только местных жителей, но и туристов со всего мира.

b6b1e4acb9.grusha_01jpg.jpg

Увы, это великолепное зрелище можно созерцать лишь весной. Но всему своё время.

В августе созревают плоды груши. Каково же отношение китайцев к этим восхитительным фруктам?

Начнём с того, что традиционно в среде образованных китайцев обычай любования цветением грушевых деревьев ценился всё-таки неизмеримо выше, чем наслаждение вкусом её плодов. Может быть поэтому в ранних книгах по китайской медицине в основном говорится лишь о вреде груш.

6bea08449e.2.jpg

Приведём лишь несколько цитат из этих произведений.

В книге «Травоведение У Пу» (III в.) есть такая запись: «При колотых и резаных ранах, а также кормящим женщинам груши есть нельзя. Избыточное потребление повреждает организм. Не являются полезным продуктом. Употребление во время отдыха после родов, а также при болезни помешает выздоровлению. Употребление груш в большом количестве непременно приведет к болезни».

Отрицательное отношение к груше прослеживается и в книге «Расширенное значение травоведения» (1116 г.): «Избыточное потребление груш повреждает селезёнку... Весьма ценятся лишь пьяницами за способность устранять сильную жажду, но никак не способны изгнать болезнь».

В более поздних книгах появляются записи об эффективности употребления плодов груш при лечении некоторых заболеваний, причем чаще всего речь идет о лечении диабета.

Начнём с рецепта под названием «Напиток лечения диабета», который содержится в знаменитой книге «Рецепты всевозможной помощи» (1409 г.), составленной под руководством Чжу Су (1361—1425 гг.) — пятого сына императора Чжу Юаньчжана (1328—1398 гг.): «Взять груш таких сортов как сян-шуй-ли, э-ли или цзян-нань-сюэ-ли, выжать сок, проварить его с мёдом, разлить в бутылки. Время от времени принимать, растворяя в горячей или холодной воде. После выздоровления приём прекратить».

Подробнейшее описание показаний и противопоказаний к употреблению груш приводится в книге выдающегося китайского ученого и врача Ли Шичжэня (1518—1593 гг.) «Цитаты из книг по травоведению с комментариями» (1590 г.). Ссылаясь на источники времени правления династии Сун (960—1279 гг.), автор поведал о нескольких случаях чудодейственного действия плодов груши в борьбе с диабетом.

Вкратце опишем лишь два из них, опустив приведенные в оригинале имена действующих лиц и специфические термины китайской медицины.

Чиновник императорского двора, страдавший диабетом, был обследован придворным лекарем. Прогноз был неутешительным. Лекарь сообщил, что болезнь уже проникла глубоко в организм и не подлежит лечению, посоветовал поскорее возвращаться в родные края, дабы произвести приготовления к смерти. По пути домой чиновник встретил некоего конского ветеринара, который подтвердил диагноз придворного лекаря, однако посоветовал есть побольше груш. Если не получится жевать, тогда выжимать из них сок. Вернувшись в родные края, больной в течение десяти дней питался лишь грушами, после чего «вновь обрёл здоровье». Придворный лекарь, узнав о чудодейственном исцелении чиновника, был очень поражен способностями ветеринара, рекомендовал его ко двору, где тот впоследствии занял должность главного императорского конюшего.

Ещё один случай. Известный врач обследовал одного больного диабетом учёного человека и предрек ему смерть через три года. Учёный удалился с обследования в весьма безрадостном настроении. Позже он прослышал, что на горе Маошань есть некий даосский монах, который владеет «божественным искусством врачевания». Поскольку монах избегал общения с мирянами и не стремился к известности в среде образованных людей и сильных мира сего, учёный облачился в одежду слуги и отправился к нему в горы на поклон с просьбой принять на службу для выполнения хозяйственных работ. Монах оставил его среди учеников. Через некоторое время учёный поведал монаху о своей болезни. Тот осмотрел его, улыбнулся и сказал: «Спускайся с гор, но изо дня в день съедай по груше. Когда свежие груши закончатся, замачивай в кипятке сушёные, съедай гущу и выпивай сок. Болезнь сама собой пройдёт». Учёный последовал этому совету, а через год вновь посетил знаменитого врача, предрекавшего ему смерть. Увидев его цветущий вид, тот с изумлением сказал: «Вы, должно быть, встречались со святым, иначе в чём же причина столь поразительного исцеления?» Учёный рассказал все подробности. Тогда врач облачился в парадные одеяния и стал отбивать земные поклоны по направлению к горе Маошань, укоряя себя в недостаточности медицинских знаний.

Приведя эти рассказы, Ли Шичжэнь (1518—1593 гг.) делает следующий вывод: «Подобные примеры заставляют усомниться в том, что действие груш столь уж ничтожно, как об этом было сказано в древних медицинских книгах... У груши немало полезных качеств, однако не надо переедать, только и всего!»

В древних и современных книгах по традиционной китайской медицине о пользе и вреде груши сказано немало. Разумеется, понимание приведённого в этих книгах материала требует определенных познаний в области китайской медицины и философии, поэтому ограничимся лишь самыми общими рекомендациями, не углубляясь в тонкости древней науки.

Итак. Плоды груши настоятельно рекомендованы к употреблению при специфическом синдроме китайской медицины под названием «синдром жара». Этот синдром в основном характеризуется стремлением к прохладе, жаждой с предпочтением холодных напитков, сухостью во рту, покраснением лица, тёмно-красным цветом языка. По представлениям китайской медицины, к этому синдрому относятся и основные типы диабета.

В разумных количествах употребление возможно в период летнего зноя и при похмельном синдроме.

Отказаться от груш или хотя бы максимально ограничить их употребление следует при «синдроме холода», который обычно сопровождается ознобами, похолоданием конечностей, предпочтением горячих напитков, светлым цветом языка. Не рекомендуется употребление груш и в послеродовой период, а также после обильной кровопотери. В этих случаях, как правило, появляется синдром «недостатка крови» (бледность, головокружение, шум в ушах, сухость и шелушение кожи, светлый цвет ногтей и языка).

Особой популярностью в Китае издавна пользуется «грушевый сироп от кашля». Однако принимать его можно отнюдь не при всех разновидностях этого симптома. Этот сироп обычно назначается при кашле с отхаркиванием жёлтой вязкой трудно отделяемой мокроты, который относится к упомянутому выше «синдрому жара».

Категорически противопоказан такой сироп при кашле, сопровождающем «синдром холода», когда происходит отхаркивание обильной светлой жидкой мокроты.

Применяются груши и наружно — в свежем виде при ожогах.

Таковы основные рекомендации по употреблению груш с позиций традиционной китайской медицины.

В заключение нашего рассказа приведем немного статистики.

В настоящее время Китай является абсолютным мировым лидером производства груш. По данным Организации по продовольствию и сельскому хозяйству при ООН, в 2010 г. на его долю приходилось 67,3% мирового производства этой культуры. Далее в списке идут Италия (3,25%), США (3,24%), Аргентина (3,11%).

Показатели на душу населения у Китая также достаточно высоки, однако эта страна занимает лишь 7 место (11,4 кг), уступая Бельгии (25 кг), Аргентине (17,5 кг), Португалии (17%), Нидерландам (16,6 кг), Италии (12,3 кг) и Испании (11,7 кг).

Среди стран СНГ лидирует Беларусь — 0,32% мирового производства и 7,6 кг на душу населения.

У России показатели скромнее — 0,18% и 0,3 кг соответственно. Поэтому настоятельно рекомендуем вам посадить дерево груши на участке, если, разумеется, его еще нет.

ОТВЕДАТЬ В ШЕСТУЮ ЛУНУ...

В шестую луну отведать мы рады
Багряные сливы и гроздь винограда

(Шицзин: Книга песен и гимнов.)

В современных источниках указывается, что в приведённом стихотворении речь шла о винограде Тунберга (Vitus thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc.), имеющем мелкие ягоды тёмно-фиолетового цвета.

e95107e92d.grozdy-kitajskogo-vinograda.j

В 1995 г. в ходе раскопок близ г. Жичжао в провинции Шаньдун китайско-американской группой археологов под руководством профессора Фан Хуэя было обнаружено более 200 гончарных изделий, а также косточки винограда. Экспертиза показала, что на внутренних стенках некоторых сосудов имеются следы вина и мёда, а сами сосуды были изготовлены 4600 лет назад. По мнению учёных, они были предназначены для хранения вина, приготовленного из дикого винограда с мёдом.

А вот культурный виноград проник в Китай лишь во II в. до н. э. Об этом свидетельствуют записи в древних источниках. Известно, что к I—II вв. н. э. широкого распространения здесь он так и не получил, а лишь некоторое время выращивался в садах императора и аристократов.

Тем не менее, культурный виноград очень высоко ценился за свои вкусовые и лечебные свойства. Особо ценилось виноградное вино. В ограниченных количествах оно завозилось из Средней Азии и было очень дорогим. В ряде древних исторических сочинений описан случай, когда при Восточной династии Хань (25—220 гг.) некий состоятельный человек получил высокую должность начальника округа после того как преподнес влиятельному евнуху 1 ху (приблизительно 100 литров) виноградного вина. Как указано в источнике, евнух «испытал от подношения великую радость».

С призывом заниматься виноградарством и виноделием обращался к подданным Цао Пи (187—226 гг.) — основатель династии Вэй Эпохи Троецарствия. Однако отклика в народе этот призыв так и не получил. Сказались политическая нестабильность, многочисленные разрушительные нашествия кочевников, связанные с этим миграция населения и недостаток сельскохозяйственных площадей, а также сложность агротехники винограда с невозможностью получения стабильных урожаев высокого качества. Кроме того, виноградное вино не могло составить конкуренцию традиционному китайскому вину из зерновых культур, так как его приготовление возможно лишь осенью, тогда как вино из зерна можно готовить в любое время года.

Ко времени правления династии Тан (618—907 гг.) в срединных районах Китая виноградарство было практически неизвестно. В книге «Новая книга южных областей» (XI в.) говорится: «Император Тай-цзун при разгроме Гаочана (древний город) добыл виноград сорта «кобылье молоко» (столовый виноград сорта хусайне («дамские пальчики»), который стал выращивать в императорском саду. Также завладел технологией виноделия... Приготовленное вино было зеленоватого цвета... Лишь тогда в Чанъане* узнали его вкус».

*Чанъань — древняя столица Китая. По мнению многих исследователей, в VII—IX вв. был самым крупным мегаполисом мира с населением 800 000—1 000 000 жителей. Ныне имеет название Сиань, является административным центром провинции Шэньси.

Постепенно начинается выращивание винограда в некоторых внутренних регионах Китая, хотя он так и не стал здесь важной сельскохозяйственной культурой.

Об ограниченности ареала распространения винограда в Китае сообщает венецианский торговец и путешественник Марко Поло (1254—1324 гг.). Вот что сказано об этом в его знаменитой «Книге о разнообразии мира»: «Весь почти народ в области Катай пьёт вот какое вино: приготовляют его из риса с другими хорошими пряностями, и питье выходит лучше всякого другого вина... Город Таян-фу, куда мы пришли, большой и красивый, торговля тут великая, а также промышленность... Много здесь отличных виноградников, и вина выделывается вдоволь; во всей области Катай одно это [виноградное] вино; из того города оно развозится по всей области».

Ко времени правления династии Мин (1368—1644 гг.) китайцам было известно несколько сортов винограда. Вот как, например, описал эти сорта известный учёный Сюй Гуанци (1562—1633 гг.): «„Хрустальный виноград“ имеет крупные овальные ягоды с беловатым налётом, сладкого вкуса. „Фиолетовый виноград“ — чёрного цвета, имеет две разновидности — крупный и мелкий, а также два вкуса — кислый и сладкий. „Зелёный виноград“ из Сычуани после созревания имеет зеленоватый цвет. А „зелёный виноград“ с Запада называется „заячий глаз“, он слаще сахара и мёда, без косточек, является поистине драгоценным продуктом. „Мелкий виноград“ с Запада имеет мелкие плоды размером с горошины чёрного перца. Виноград из Юньнани размером с унаби, имеет исключительно высокие вкусовые качества. Виноград, вывезенный из Персии, размером с куриное яйцо, его можно употреблять в свежем виде или готовить из него вино, а сушить его очень трудно».

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Испокон веков китайская медицина уделяет винограду особое внимание. В древнем классическом трактате «Канон травоведения Священного земледельца» он был описан первым среди продуктов высшего разряда в разделе «Фрукты и овощи», что указывало на его исключительные целебные качества.

Вот что сказано о винограде в этом произведении: «Лечит боль в суставах. Восполняет жизненную энергию Ци, удваивает силу, укрепляет волю. Позволяет человеку быть упитанным и здоровым, делает его устойчивым к голоду, способным противостоять простуде. Длительное потребление придаёт лёгкость телу, позволяет противодействовать старению, продлевает годы жизни».

В древних и современных руководствах по китайской медицине виноград рассматривается как один из основных продуктов питания, способствующих восполнению жизненной энергии Ци и крови. Его употребление в разумных количествах настоятельно рекомендуется при таких специфических синдромах китайской медицины как недостаток Ци и крови, недостаток Ци лёгких, недостаток Инь печени и почек. Также считается, что регулярное употребление винограда способствует усилению умственных способностей человека.

Особенно полезен виноград после болезней с ослаблением организма, детям, беременным женщинам и пожилым людям. Летом и осенью его рекомендуется употреблять в свежем виде, зимой и весной — в виде изюма или сока.

Беременным женщинам при повышенной двигательной активности плода китайскими врачами обычно предписывается употребление дважды в день компота, приготовленного из 30 г винограда или изюма.

По данным Организации по продовольствию и сельскому хозяйству при ООН, в 2010 г. Китай занял первое место в мире по валовому сбору винограда (12,7% мирового производства). Однако по показателям на душу населения он занимает лишь 50 место (6,5 кг). У России показатели скромнее — 0,47% и 2,3 кг соответственно.

Мировыми лидерами в производстве винограда на душу населения являются Чили (165 кг), Италия (134 кг), Испания (131 кг). В этих странах большая часть винограда перерабатывается в вино, в то время как в Китае преобладают столовые и кишмишно-изюмные сорта.

Следует отметить, что столовое вино западного типа не пользуется широкой популярностью в Китае. Здесь традиционно предпочитают сладкое виноградное вино, обычно с добавлением трав и пряностей, иногда полученное путем сбраживания с рисом.

В последнее время ситуация несколько меняется. Вина западного образца становятся модными и престижными среди обеспеченных слоев населения современного Китая. С помощью французских винодельческих компаний в ряде регионов Китая созданы винодельческие предприятия. Китайские виноделы пытаются продвигать свою продукцию на зарубежные рынки, однако в самом Китае сила традиций и вкусов все-таки очень сильна, поэтому ожидать широкого распространения культуры употребления виноградных вин западного типа здесь едва ли возможно.

Основным местом производства винограда в Китае является Турфанский оазис в Синьцзян-Уйгурском автономном районе. Здесь производится 75% изюма в стране. Турфанский виноград имеет очень высокие вкусовые и товарные качества, а изготовленный из него изюм по праву может считаться лучшим в мире.

Осенью в городе Турфан проходит ежегодный праздник винограда «Шёлковый путь». Это необычайно красочное зрелище привлекает туристов со всего мира и является одним из важнейших культурных событий года в регионе.

На улицах города проходят фольклорные представления и концерты, свадебные церемонии в традициях уйгуров, театрализованные представления, шествия караванов верблюдов, экскурсии по особой «виноградной аллее», на которой туристы могут сами срывать свежий виноград.

По данным оргкомитета мероприятия, в 2012 году на праздник винограда в Турфан прибыло более 2000 туристических групп.

ХЕНОМЕЛЕС ПРЕКРАСНАЯ

Мне ты в подарок принёс плод айвы ароматный,
Яшмой прекрасною был мой подарок обратный.
Не для того я дарила, чтоб нам обменяться дарами,
А для того, чтобы вечной осталась любовь между нами.

Шицзин: Книга песен и гимнов

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Сегодня мы поговорим о растении, которое испокон веков пользовалось особой популярностью в Китае. Его ботаническое название — хеномелес прекрасная (Chaenomeles speciosa). Такое название было дано ему европейскими ботаниками в конце XVIII в. Хеномелес — кустовое растение, обычно с колючими ветками и плодами небольшого размера, по виду напоминающими айву. Видимо поэтому оно больше известно у нас как «японская айва».

В отличие от европейцев, китайцы нашли в нем сходство не с айвой, а с маленькой дыней, растущей на небольшом деревце. Перевод китайского названия хеномелес — «древесная дыня» (му-гуа). Известно, что Китай – родина этого растения. Первое упоминание о нём встречается в древнейшем памятнике китайской культуры «Каноне стихов» (XI—VI вв. до н. э.):

Хеномелес — поистине удивительное растение. Удивительно в нем всё — и восхитительные цветки, распускающиеся ранней весной, и целебные свойства плодов, и неповторимый нежный аромат.

Начнём с аромата. Собранные и даже высушенные плоды хеномелеса очень долго сохраняют свой тонкий аромат. Именно поэтому китайцы издавна используют их для ароматизации своих жилищ. В Древнем Китае существовал обычай расставлять блюда с плодами хеномелеса в жилых комнатах, чаще всего в спальных покоях супругов. Считалось, что благоухание этих плодов возбуждает любовное влечение.

В популярном романе «Сон в красном тереме» (XVIII в.) описывается, как один из главных героев романа по имени Цзя Баоюй очутился в спальне красавицы Цинь Кэцин. На столике он увидел золотое блюдо с крупным плодом хеномелеса. «У Баоюя в носу сразу защекотало от какого-то едва уловимого аромата, глаза стали слипаться, он почувствовал во всем теле сладостную истому...» Баоюй погрузился в сон, в котором он общался с небесными феями из сказочного мира Великой пустоты и с волшебным образом самой хозяйки комнаты...

Из высушенных плодов также готовили пудру, которую женщины наносили на лицо и тело.

Нередко плоды хеномелеса раскладывали в сундуках с одеждой и в книжных шкафах. Со временем одежда и книги пропитывались восхитительным ароматом, что не только свидетельствовало об особой утончённости нравов их обладателей, но и предохраняло вещи от моли.

А вот для борьбы с клопами мелко нарезанные плоды хеномелес обычно раскладывали под спальными циновками.

О целебных свойствах плодов хеномелеса в Китае известно очень давно. В народе его издавна называют «плодом вечного долголетия», «царём плодов с сотней полезных свойств».

Известный комментатор древних текстов Лу Дянь (1042—1102 гг.) некогда писал: «Люди говорят, что плод груши обладает сотней вредных и лишь одним полезным свойствами, а плод хеномелеса — сотней полезных и одним вредным».

Знаменитый ученый и врач Тао Хунцзин (456—536 гг.) писал следующее: «Хеномелес особо эффективен в лечении спазма мышц конечностей. При появлении спазма можно просто произносить его название или написать иероглифы «му-гуа» (древесная дыня) на бумаге. Болезнь пройдёт. Объяснения этому явлению нет. В народе также говорят, что ходьба с посохом, изготовленным из древесины хеномелеса, укрепляет сухожилия».

В одной из древних медицинских книг описан следующий случай. Некий человек страдал бери-бери (авитаминоз) с отёками, судорогами и болью в ногах. Однажды, путешествуя по реке на лодке, он поставил ноги на какой-то мешок. Постепенно боль в ногах утихла. Тогда он спросил у лодочника, чем же наполнен мешок. Лодочник ответил, что в мешке плоды хеномелеса. Вернувшись домой, больной взял мешок и наполнил его нарезанными плодами, регулярно топтался по нему ногами и вскоре полностью избавился от своей болезни.

В знаменитой книге «Собрание чудодейственных рецептов Великого спокойствия» (992 г.) сухие и блёклые волосы рекомендуется расчёсывать гребнем с нанесённым на него растительным маслом, настоянном на измельчённых плодах хеномелеса.

В современных руководствах по китайской медицине плод хеномелес отнесён к группе лекарств, основным действием которых является устранение артритов. Среди показаний к применению также указываются спазмы икроножных мышц, бери-бери, отёк и слабость ног, острая рвота и понос.

Из-за кислого вкуса, грубой кожицы и твёрдой мякоти плоды айвы японской в свежем виде практически не употребляют.

В настоящее время в китайской медицине в основном используются слегка отваренные, а затем высушенные на солнце дольки плодов хеномелеса. Вместе с другими лекарствами их вводят в отвары.

В древности способы обработки были несколько иными. Вот что говорится, например, в одной медицинской книге V в.: «При обработке этих плодов нельзя пользоваться железной утварью. Следует срезать медным ножом жёсткую кожуру, удалить семена, нарезать плоды на кусочки и высушить их на солнце. Затем смешать их с молоком жёлтой коровы и варить на пару от части суток Сы (09:00—11:00) до части суток Вэй (13:00—15:00) — до пастообразного состояния, после чего вновь высушить на солнце».

Знаменитый врач Ли Шичжэнь (1518—1593 гг.) предложил свой способ обработки плодов хеномелеса: «Удалить семена, сварить на пару до размягчения, растолочь, добавить мёд и свежий имбирь, вскипятить. Особенно прекрасно принимать это целебное лакомство в зимние месяцы».

Из плодов хеномелеса также готовят медовые цукаты, варенье, настойки, ароматную муку.

Утончённый обычай любования цветением плодовых деревьев — неотъемлемая часть китайской культуры. Не оставляет равнодушными китайцев и вид цветущих деревьев хеномелеса. В последнее время хеномелес находит все большее применение в декоративном садоводстве. Она не боится морозов, хорошо переносит засуху. Так что выращивание этого удивительного растения принесёт вам истинную радость. Весной вы сможете любоваться нежным цветением, осенью айва подарит вам свои плоды, которые не только весьма полезны для здоровья, но и на долгое время наполнят ваш дом чарующим ароматом любви.

[short_text] =>

Для любителей следовать советам китайской народной медицины заметки знатока растений и секретов китайского здоровья Павла Белоусова. Он предлагает посмотреть на грушу, айву и виноград глазами древних и современных китайцев.

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В Китае груша известна с незапамятных времен. Об этом свидетельствуют неоднократные упоминания о её деревьях в древнейшем памятнике китайской культуры «Каноне стихов» (XI—VI вв. до н. э.). Во многих стихотворениях этого канона присутствует сюжет одиноко растущего дерева груши, символизирующий одиночество и печаль.

Издавна особое место в китайской культуре занимают и белоснежные цветущие грушевые деревья. На протяжении веков их вид и благоухание вдохновляют поэтов и художников.

Вряд ли возможно перечислить все стихи китайских поэтов, посвящённые цветению груши. Часто на тему стихотворения одного поэта слагались собственные стихи. Большой популярностью, например, пользовалось стихотворение Ван Вэя (701—761 гг.) «Лепестки грушевых цветов у левых дворцовых ворот»:

Нехотя слетают
На траву у крыльца,
Ветерок относит
Их легко от дверей.
Жёлтой иволге любо
Шалить без конца —
С лепестком впорхнула
В палаты дворца.*

*Перевод А. А. Штейнберга.

Холодная их красота —
Точь-в-точь нетронутый снег.
Чуть слышимый аромат
В одежды мои проник.
А вешний ветр ни на миг
Не замедляет бег, —
Пригнал к нефриту крыльца,
Душистый сугроб воздвиг*

Цю Вэй (694—789 гг.)

Прелестно цветут
И улыбкой радуют взгляд.
Сдается: вот-вот
С мотыльками вспорхнут наравне.
Влетает порой
Вешний ветр сквозь двери палат —
Два-три лепестка
Опустились на платье ко мне*.

Хуанфу Жань (716—769 гг.)

Разумеется, утончённый обычай любования цветением грушевых деревьев сохранился и до наших дней. Ежегодно в апреле во многих регионах Китая проводятся чрезвычайно красочные мероприятия — так называемые «Праздники цветения груш», привлекающие не только местных жителей, но и туристов со всего мира.

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Увы, это великолепное зрелище можно созерцать лишь весной. Но всему своё время.

В августе созревают плоды груши. Каково же отношение китайцев к этим восхитительным фруктам?

Начнём с того, что традиционно в среде образованных китайцев обычай любования цветением грушевых деревьев ценился всё-таки неизмеримо выше, чем наслаждение вкусом её плодов. Может быть поэтому в ранних книгах по китайской медицине в основном говорится лишь о вреде груш.

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Приведём лишь несколько цитат из этих произведений.

В книге «Травоведение У Пу» (III в.) есть такая запись: «При колотых и резаных ранах, а также кормящим женщинам груши есть нельзя. Избыточное потребление повреждает организм. Не являются полезным продуктом. Употребление во время отдыха после родов, а также при болезни помешает выздоровлению. Употребление груш в большом количестве непременно приведет к болезни».

Отрицательное отношение к груше прослеживается и в книге «Расширенное значение травоведения» (1116 г.): «Избыточное потребление груш повреждает селезёнку... Весьма ценятся лишь пьяницами за способность устранять сильную жажду, но никак не способны изгнать болезнь».

В более поздних книгах появляются записи об эффективности употребления плодов груш при лечении некоторых заболеваний, причем чаще всего речь идет о лечении диабета.

Начнём с рецепта под названием «Напиток лечения диабета», который содержится в знаменитой книге «Рецепты всевозможной помощи» (1409 г.), составленной под руководством Чжу Су (1361—1425 гг.) — пятого сына императора Чжу Юаньчжана (1328—1398 гг.): «Взять груш таких сортов как сян-шуй-ли, э-ли или цзян-нань-сюэ-ли, выжать сок, проварить его с мёдом, разлить в бутылки. Время от времени принимать, растворяя в горячей или холодной воде. После выздоровления приём прекратить».

Подробнейшее описание показаний и противопоказаний к употреблению груш приводится в книге выдающегося китайского ученого и врача Ли Шичжэня (1518—1593 гг.) «Цитаты из книг по травоведению с комментариями» (1590 г.). Ссылаясь на источники времени правления династии Сун (960—1279 гг.), автор поведал о нескольких случаях чудодейственного действия плодов груши в борьбе с диабетом.

Вкратце опишем лишь два из них, опустив приведенные в оригинале имена действующих лиц и специфические термины китайской медицины.

Чиновник императорского двора, страдавший диабетом, был обследован придворным лекарем. Прогноз был неутешительным. Лекарь сообщил, что болезнь уже проникла глубоко в организм и не подлежит лечению, посоветовал поскорее возвращаться в родные края, дабы произвести приготовления к смерти. По пути домой чиновник встретил некоего конского ветеринара, который подтвердил диагноз придворного лекаря, однако посоветовал есть побольше груш. Если не получится жевать, тогда выжимать из них сок. Вернувшись в родные края, больной в течение десяти дней питался лишь грушами, после чего «вновь обрёл здоровье». Придворный лекарь, узнав о чудодейственном исцелении чиновника, был очень поражен способностями ветеринара, рекомендовал его ко двору, где тот впоследствии занял должность главного императорского конюшего.

Ещё один случай. Известный врач обследовал одного больного диабетом учёного человека и предрек ему смерть через три года. Учёный удалился с обследования в весьма безрадостном настроении. Позже он прослышал, что на горе Маошань есть некий даосский монах, который владеет «божественным искусством врачевания». Поскольку монах избегал общения с мирянами и не стремился к известности в среде образованных людей и сильных мира сего, учёный облачился в одежду слуги и отправился к нему в горы на поклон с просьбой принять на службу для выполнения хозяйственных работ. Монах оставил его среди учеников. Через некоторое время учёный поведал монаху о своей болезни. Тот осмотрел его, улыбнулся и сказал: «Спускайся с гор, но изо дня в день съедай по груше. Когда свежие груши закончатся, замачивай в кипятке сушёные, съедай гущу и выпивай сок. Болезнь сама собой пройдёт». Учёный последовал этому совету, а через год вновь посетил знаменитого врача, предрекавшего ему смерть. Увидев его цветущий вид, тот с изумлением сказал: «Вы, должно быть, встречались со святым, иначе в чём же причина столь поразительного исцеления?» Учёный рассказал все подробности. Тогда врач облачился в парадные одеяния и стал отбивать земные поклоны по направлению к горе Маошань, укоряя себя в недостаточности медицинских знаний.

Приведя эти рассказы, Ли Шичжэнь (1518—1593 гг.) делает следующий вывод: «Подобные примеры заставляют усомниться в том, что действие груш столь уж ничтожно, как об этом было сказано в древних медицинских книгах... У груши немало полезных качеств, однако не надо переедать, только и всего!»

В древних и современных книгах по традиционной китайской медицине о пользе и вреде груши сказано немало. Разумеется, понимание приведённого в этих книгах материала требует определенных познаний в области китайской медицины и философии, поэтому ограничимся лишь самыми общими рекомендациями, не углубляясь в тонкости древней науки.

Итак. Плоды груши настоятельно рекомендованы к употреблению при специфическом синдроме китайской медицины под названием «синдром жара». Этот синдром в основном характеризуется стремлением к прохладе, жаждой с предпочтением холодных напитков, сухостью во рту, покраснением лица, тёмно-красным цветом языка. По представлениям китайской медицины, к этому синдрому относятся и основные типы диабета.

В разумных количествах употребление возможно в период летнего зноя и при похмельном синдроме.

Отказаться от груш или хотя бы максимально ограничить их употребление следует при «синдроме холода», который обычно сопровождается ознобами, похолоданием конечностей, предпочтением горячих напитков, светлым цветом языка. Не рекомендуется употребление груш и в послеродовой период, а также после обильной кровопотери. В этих случаях, как правило, появляется синдром «недостатка крови» (бледность, головокружение, шум в ушах, сухость и шелушение кожи, светлый цвет ногтей и языка).

Особой популярностью в Китае издавна пользуется «грушевый сироп от кашля». Однако принимать его можно отнюдь не при всех разновидностях этого симптома. Этот сироп обычно назначается при кашле с отхаркиванием жёлтой вязкой трудно отделяемой мокроты, который относится к упомянутому выше «синдрому жара».

Категорически противопоказан такой сироп при кашле, сопровождающем «синдром холода», когда происходит отхаркивание обильной светлой жидкой мокроты.

Применяются груши и наружно — в свежем виде при ожогах.

Таковы основные рекомендации по употреблению груш с позиций традиционной китайской медицины.

В заключение нашего рассказа приведем немного статистики.

В настоящее время Китай является абсолютным мировым лидером производства груш. По данным Организации по продовольствию и сельскому хозяйству при ООН, в 2010 г. на его долю приходилось 67,3% мирового производства этой культуры. Далее в списке идут Италия (3,25%), США (3,24%), Аргентина (3,11%).

Показатели на душу населения у Китая также достаточно высоки, однако эта страна занимает лишь 7 место (11,4 кг), уступая Бельгии (25 кг), Аргентине (17,5 кг), Португалии (17%), Нидерландам (16,6 кг), Италии (12,3 кг) и Испании (11,7 кг).

Среди стран СНГ лидирует Беларусь — 0,32% мирового производства и 7,6 кг на душу населения.

У России показатели скромнее — 0,18% и 0,3 кг соответственно. Поэтому настоятельно рекомендуем вам посадить дерево груши на участке, если, разумеется, его еще нет.

ОТВЕДАТЬ В ШЕСТУЮ ЛУНУ...

В шестую луну отведать мы рады
Багряные сливы и гроздь винограда

(Шицзин: Книга песен и гимнов.)

В современных источниках указывается, что в приведённом стихотворении речь шла о винограде Тунберга (Vitus thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc.), имеющем мелкие ягоды тёмно-фиолетового цвета.

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В 1995 г. в ходе раскопок близ г. Жичжао в провинции Шаньдун китайско-американской группой археологов под руководством профессора Фан Хуэя было обнаружено более 200 гончарных изделий, а также косточки винограда. Экспертиза показала, что на внутренних стенках некоторых сосудов имеются следы вина и мёда, а сами сосуды были изготовлены 4600 лет назад. По мнению учёных, они были предназначены для хранения вина, приготовленного из дикого винограда с мёдом.

А вот культурный виноград проник в Китай лишь во II в. до н. э. Об этом свидетельствуют записи в древних источниках. Известно, что к I—II вв. н. э. широкого распространения здесь он так и не получил, а лишь некоторое время выращивался в садах императора и аристократов.

Тем не менее, культурный виноград очень высоко ценился за свои вкусовые и лечебные свойства. Особо ценилось виноградное вино. В ограниченных количествах оно завозилось из Средней Азии и было очень дорогим. В ряде древних исторических сочинений описан случай, когда при Восточной династии Хань (25—220 гг.) некий состоятельный человек получил высокую должность начальника округа после того как преподнес влиятельному евнуху 1 ху (приблизительно 100 литров) виноградного вина. Как указано в источнике, евнух «испытал от подношения великую радость».

С призывом заниматься виноградарством и виноделием обращался к подданным Цао Пи (187—226 гг.) — основатель династии Вэй Эпохи Троецарствия. Однако отклика в народе этот призыв так и не получил. Сказались политическая нестабильность, многочисленные разрушительные нашествия кочевников, связанные с этим миграция населения и недостаток сельскохозяйственных площадей, а также сложность агротехники винограда с невозможностью получения стабильных урожаев высокого качества. Кроме того, виноградное вино не могло составить конкуренцию традиционному китайскому вину из зерновых культур, так как его приготовление возможно лишь осенью, тогда как вино из зерна можно готовить в любое время года.

Ко времени правления династии Тан (618—907 гг.) в срединных районах Китая виноградарство было практически неизвестно. В книге «Новая книга южных областей» (XI в.) говорится: «Император Тай-цзун при разгроме Гаочана (древний город) добыл виноград сорта «кобылье молоко» (столовый виноград сорта хусайне («дамские пальчики»), который стал выращивать в императорском саду. Также завладел технологией виноделия... Приготовленное вино было зеленоватого цвета... Лишь тогда в Чанъане* узнали его вкус».

*Чанъань — древняя столица Китая. По мнению многих исследователей, в VII—IX вв. был самым крупным мегаполисом мира с населением 800 000—1 000 000 жителей. Ныне имеет название Сиань, является административным центром провинции Шэньси.

Постепенно начинается выращивание винограда в некоторых внутренних регионах Китая, хотя он так и не стал здесь важной сельскохозяйственной культурой.

Об ограниченности ареала распространения винограда в Китае сообщает венецианский торговец и путешественник Марко Поло (1254—1324 гг.). Вот что сказано об этом в его знаменитой «Книге о разнообразии мира»: «Весь почти народ в области Катай пьёт вот какое вино: приготовляют его из риса с другими хорошими пряностями, и питье выходит лучше всякого другого вина... Город Таян-фу, куда мы пришли, большой и красивый, торговля тут великая, а также промышленность... Много здесь отличных виноградников, и вина выделывается вдоволь; во всей области Катай одно это [виноградное] вино; из того города оно развозится по всей области».

Ко времени правления династии Мин (1368—1644 гг.) китайцам было известно несколько сортов винограда. Вот как, например, описал эти сорта известный учёный Сюй Гуанци (1562—1633 гг.): «„Хрустальный виноград“ имеет крупные овальные ягоды с беловатым налётом, сладкого вкуса. „Фиолетовый виноград“ — чёрного цвета, имеет две разновидности — крупный и мелкий, а также два вкуса — кислый и сладкий. „Зелёный виноград“ из Сычуани после созревания имеет зеленоватый цвет. А „зелёный виноград“ с Запада называется „заячий глаз“, он слаще сахара и мёда, без косточек, является поистине драгоценным продуктом. „Мелкий виноград“ с Запада имеет мелкие плоды размером с горошины чёрного перца. Виноград из Юньнани размером с унаби, имеет исключительно высокие вкусовые качества. Виноград, вывезенный из Персии, размером с куриное яйцо, его можно употреблять в свежем виде или готовить из него вино, а сушить его очень трудно».

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Испокон веков китайская медицина уделяет винограду особое внимание. В древнем классическом трактате «Канон травоведения Священного земледельца» он был описан первым среди продуктов высшего разряда в разделе «Фрукты и овощи», что указывало на его исключительные целебные качества.

Вот что сказано о винограде в этом произведении: «Лечит боль в суставах. Восполняет жизненную энергию Ци, удваивает силу, укрепляет волю. Позволяет человеку быть упитанным и здоровым, делает его устойчивым к голоду, способным противостоять простуде. Длительное потребление придаёт лёгкость телу, позволяет противодействовать старению, продлевает годы жизни».

В древних и современных руководствах по китайской медицине виноград рассматривается как один из основных продуктов питания, способствующих восполнению жизненной энергии Ци и крови. Его употребление в разумных количествах настоятельно рекомендуется при таких специфических синдромах китайской медицины как недостаток Ци и крови, недостаток Ци лёгких, недостаток Инь печени и почек. Также считается, что регулярное употребление винограда способствует усилению умственных способностей человека.

Особенно полезен виноград после болезней с ослаблением организма, детям, беременным женщинам и пожилым людям. Летом и осенью его рекомендуется употреблять в свежем виде, зимой и весной — в виде изюма или сока.

Беременным женщинам при повышенной двигательной активности плода китайскими врачами обычно предписывается употребление дважды в день компота, приготовленного из 30 г винограда или изюма.

По данным Организации по продовольствию и сельскому хозяйству при ООН, в 2010 г. Китай занял первое место в мире по валовому сбору винограда (12,7% мирового производства). Однако по показателям на душу населения он занимает лишь 50 место (6,5 кг). У России показатели скромнее — 0,47% и 2,3 кг соответственно.

Мировыми лидерами в производстве винограда на душу населения являются Чили (165 кг), Италия (134 кг), Испания (131 кг). В этих странах большая часть винограда перерабатывается в вино, в то время как в Китае преобладают столовые и кишмишно-изюмные сорта.

Следует отметить, что столовое вино западного типа не пользуется широкой популярностью в Китае. Здесь традиционно предпочитают сладкое виноградное вино, обычно с добавлением трав и пряностей, иногда полученное путем сбраживания с рисом.

В последнее время ситуация несколько меняется. Вина западного образца становятся модными и престижными среди обеспеченных слоев населения современного Китая. С помощью французских винодельческих компаний в ряде регионов Китая созданы винодельческие предприятия. Китайские виноделы пытаются продвигать свою продукцию на зарубежные рынки, однако в самом Китае сила традиций и вкусов все-таки очень сильна, поэтому ожидать широкого распространения культуры употребления виноградных вин западного типа здесь едва ли возможно.

Основным местом производства винограда в Китае является Турфанский оазис в Синьцзян-Уйгурском автономном районе. Здесь производится 75% изюма в стране. Турфанский виноград имеет очень высокие вкусовые и товарные качества, а изготовленный из него изюм по праву может считаться лучшим в мире.

Осенью в городе Турфан проходит ежегодный праздник винограда «Шёлковый путь». Это необычайно красочное зрелище привлекает туристов со всего мира и является одним из важнейших культурных событий года в регионе.

На улицах города проходят фольклорные представления и концерты, свадебные церемонии в традициях уйгуров, театрализованные представления, шествия караванов верблюдов, экскурсии по особой «виноградной аллее», на которой туристы могут сами срывать свежий виноград.

По данным оргкомитета мероприятия, в 2012 году на праздник винограда в Турфан прибыло более 2000 туристических групп.

ХЕНОМЕЛЕС ПРЕКРАСНАЯ

Мне ты в подарок принёс плод айвы ароматный,
Яшмой прекрасною был мой подарок обратный.
Не для того я дарила, чтоб нам обменяться дарами,
А для того, чтобы вечной осталась любовь между нами.

Шицзин: Книга песен и гимнов

3ea210c01d.tatyana.jpg

Сегодня мы поговорим о растении, которое испокон веков пользовалось особой популярностью в Китае. Его ботаническое название — хеномелес прекрасная (Chaenomeles speciosa). Такое название было дано ему европейскими ботаниками в конце XVIII в. Хеномелес — кустовое растение, обычно с колючими ветками и плодами небольшого размера, по виду напоминающими айву. Видимо поэтому оно больше известно у нас как «японская айва».

В отличие от европейцев, китайцы нашли в нем сходство не с айвой, а с маленькой дыней, растущей на небольшом деревце. Перевод китайского названия хеномелес — «древесная дыня» (му-гуа). Известно, что Китай – родина этого растения. Первое упоминание о нём встречается в древнейшем памятнике китайской культуры «Каноне стихов» (XI—VI вв. до н. э.):

Хеномелес — поистине удивительное растение. Удивительно в нем всё — и восхитительные цветки, распускающиеся ранней весной, и целебные свойства плодов, и неповторимый нежный аромат.

Начнём с аромата. Собранные и даже высушенные плоды хеномелеса очень долго сохраняют свой тонкий аромат. Именно поэтому китайцы издавна используют их для ароматизации своих жилищ. В Древнем Китае существовал обычай расставлять блюда с плодами хеномелеса в жилых комнатах, чаще всего в спальных покоях супругов. Считалось, что благоухание этих плодов возбуждает любовное влечение.

В популярном романе «Сон в красном тереме» (XVIII в.) описывается, как один из главных героев романа по имени Цзя Баоюй очутился в спальне красавицы Цинь Кэцин. На столике он увидел золотое блюдо с крупным плодом хеномелеса. «У Баоюя в носу сразу защекотало от какого-то едва уловимого аромата, глаза стали слипаться, он почувствовал во всем теле сладостную истому...» Баоюй погрузился в сон, в котором он общался с небесными феями из сказочного мира Великой пустоты и с волшебным образом самой хозяйки комнаты...

Из высушенных плодов также готовили пудру, которую женщины наносили на лицо и тело.

Нередко плоды хеномелеса раскладывали в сундуках с одеждой и в книжных шкафах. Со временем одежда и книги пропитывались восхитительным ароматом, что не только свидетельствовало об особой утончённости нравов их обладателей, но и предохраняло вещи от моли.

А вот для борьбы с клопами мелко нарезанные плоды хеномелес обычно раскладывали под спальными циновками.

О целебных свойствах плодов хеномелеса в Китае известно очень давно. В народе его издавна называют «плодом вечного долголетия», «царём плодов с сотней полезных свойств».

Известный комментатор древних текстов Лу Дянь (1042—1102 гг.) некогда писал: «Люди говорят, что плод груши обладает сотней вредных и лишь одним полезным свойствами, а плод хеномелеса — сотней полезных и одним вредным».

Знаменитый ученый и врач Тао Хунцзин (456—536 гг.) писал следующее: «Хеномелес особо эффективен в лечении спазма мышц конечностей. При появлении спазма можно просто произносить его название или написать иероглифы «му-гуа» (древесная дыня) на бумаге. Болезнь пройдёт. Объяснения этому явлению нет. В народе также говорят, что ходьба с посохом, изготовленным из древесины хеномелеса, укрепляет сухожилия».

В одной из древних медицинских книг описан следующий случай. Некий человек страдал бери-бери (авитаминоз) с отёками, судорогами и болью в ногах. Однажды, путешествуя по реке на лодке, он поставил ноги на какой-то мешок. Постепенно боль в ногах утихла. Тогда он спросил у лодочника, чем же наполнен мешок. Лодочник ответил, что в мешке плоды хеномелеса. Вернувшись домой, больной взял мешок и наполнил его нарезанными плодами, регулярно топтался по нему ногами и вскоре полностью избавился от своей болезни.

В знаменитой книге «Собрание чудодейственных рецептов Великого спокойствия» (992 г.) сухие и блёклые волосы рекомендуется расчёсывать гребнем с нанесённым на него растительным маслом, настоянном на измельчённых плодах хеномелеса.

В современных руководствах по китайской медицине плод хеномелес отнесён к группе лекарств, основным действием которых является устранение артритов. Среди показаний к применению также указываются спазмы икроножных мышц, бери-бери, отёк и слабость ног, острая рвота и понос.

Из-за кислого вкуса, грубой кожицы и твёрдой мякоти плоды айвы японской в свежем виде практически не употребляют.

В настоящее время в китайской медицине в основном используются слегка отваренные, а затем высушенные на солнце дольки плодов хеномелеса. Вместе с другими лекарствами их вводят в отвары.

В древности способы обработки были несколько иными. Вот что говорится, например, в одной медицинской книге V в.: «При обработке этих плодов нельзя пользоваться железной утварью. Следует срезать медным ножом жёсткую кожуру, удалить семена, нарезать плоды на кусочки и высушить их на солнце. Затем смешать их с молоком жёлтой коровы и варить на пару от части суток Сы (09:00—11:00) до части суток Вэй (13:00—15:00) — до пастообразного состояния, после чего вновь высушить на солнце».

Знаменитый врач Ли Шичжэнь (1518—1593 гг.) предложил свой способ обработки плодов хеномелеса: «Удалить семена, сварить на пару до размягчения, растолочь, добавить мёд и свежий имбирь, вскипятить. Особенно прекрасно принимать это целебное лакомство в зимние месяцы».

Из плодов хеномелеса также готовят медовые цукаты, варенье, настойки, ароматную муку.

Утончённый обычай любования цветением плодовых деревьев — неотъемлемая часть китайской культуры. Не оставляет равнодушными китайцев и вид цветущих деревьев хеномелеса. В последнее время хеномелес находит все большее применение в декоративном садоводстве. Она не боится морозов, хорошо переносит засуху. Так что выращивание этого удивительного растения принесёт вам истинную радость. Весной вы сможете любоваться нежным цветением, осенью айва подарит вам свои плоды, которые не только весьма полезны для здоровья, но и на долгое время наполнят ваш дом чарующим ароматом любви.

[short_text] =>

Для любителей следовать советам китайской народной медицины заметки знатока растений и секретов китайского здоровья Павла Белоусова. Он предлагает посмотреть на грушу, айву и виноград глазами древних и современных китайцев.

[keywords] => его, что, при, винограда, китайской, лишь, хеномелеса, груши, также, плодов, как, груш, время, вино, Китае, плоды, виноград, очень, древних, после [description] => 200 гончарных изделий, а также косточки винограда. [created] => 1387374195 [updated] => 1388228573 [userId] => 3 [authorName] => [category] => 5 [fixed] => 0 [views] => 3049 [tags] => китайская медицина,груша,виноград,айва,Павел Белоусов [glav_img] => /uploads/page_glav/201312/3/.thumb/089a706feb.qianlong_01jpg.jpg [status] => 1 ) [_related:yii\db\BaseActiveRecord:private] => Array ( ) [_errors:yii\base\Model:private] => [_validators:yii\base\Model:private] => [_scenario:yii\base\Model:private] => default [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( [beforeInsert] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [0] => yii\behaviors\TimestampBehavior Object ( [createdAtAttribute] => created_at [updatedAtAttribute] => updated_at [value] => [attributes] => Array ( [beforeInsert] => Array ( [0] => created [1] => updated ) [beforeUpdate] => updated ) [owner] => common\models\Pages Object *RECURSION* ) [1] => evaluateAttributes ) [1] => ) ) [beforeUpdate] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [0] => yii\behaviors\TimestampBehavior Object ( [createdAtAttribute] => created_at [updatedAtAttribute] => updated_at [value] => [attributes] => Array ( [beforeInsert] => Array ( [0] => created [1] => updated ) [beforeUpdate] => updated ) [owner] => common\models\Pages Object *RECURSION* ) [1] => evaluateAttributes ) [1] => ) ) ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( [timestamp] => yii\behaviors\TimestampBehavior Object ( [createdAtAttribute] => created_at [updatedAtAttribute] => updated_at [value] => [attributes] => Array ( [beforeInsert] => Array ( [0] => created [1] => updated ) [beforeUpdate] => updated ) [owner] => common\models\Pages Object *RECURSION* ) ) ) ) ) [2] => Array ( [file] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/vendor/yiisoft/yii2/base/View.php [line] => 315 [args] => Array ( [0] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/frontend/views/page/page.php ) [function] => require ) [3] => Array ( [file] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/vendor/yiisoft/yii2/base/View.php [line] => 247 [function] => renderPhpFile [class] => yii\base\View [type] => -> [args] => Array ( [0] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/frontend/views/page/page.php [1] => Array ( [page] => common\models\Pages Object ( [idel] => [_attributes:yii\db\BaseActiveRecord:private] => Array ( [id] => 59 [title] => Павел БЕЛОУСОВ, китаевед, Алма-Ата ГРУША У ЛЕВЫХ ДВОРЦОВЫХ ВОРОТ [alias] => pavel-belousov-kitaeved-alma-ata-grusha-u-levyh-dvorcovyh-vorot [content] =>

В Китае груша известна с незапамятных времен. Об этом свидетельствуют неоднократные упоминания о её деревьях в древнейшем памятнике китайской культуры «Каноне стихов» (XI—VI вв. до н. э.). Во многих стихотворениях этого канона присутствует сюжет одиноко растущего дерева груши, символизирующий одиночество и печаль.

Издавна особое место в китайской культуре занимают и белоснежные цветущие грушевые деревья. На протяжении веков их вид и благоухание вдохновляют поэтов и художников.

Вряд ли возможно перечислить все стихи китайских поэтов, посвящённые цветению груши. Часто на тему стихотворения одного поэта слагались собственные стихи. Большой популярностью, например, пользовалось стихотворение Ван Вэя (701—761 гг.) «Лепестки грушевых цветов у левых дворцовых ворот»:

Нехотя слетают
На траву у крыльца,
Ветерок относит
Их легко от дверей.
Жёлтой иволге любо
Шалить без конца —
С лепестком впорхнула
В палаты дворца.*

*Перевод А. А. Штейнберга.

Холодная их красота —
Точь-в-точь нетронутый снег.
Чуть слышимый аромат
В одежды мои проник.
А вешний ветр ни на миг
Не замедляет бег, —
Пригнал к нефриту крыльца,
Душистый сугроб воздвиг*

Цю Вэй (694—789 гг.)

Прелестно цветут
И улыбкой радуют взгляд.
Сдается: вот-вот
С мотыльками вспорхнут наравне.
Влетает порой
Вешний ветр сквозь двери палат —
Два-три лепестка
Опустились на платье ко мне*.

Хуанфу Жань (716—769 гг.)

Разумеется, утончённый обычай любования цветением грушевых деревьев сохранился и до наших дней. Ежегодно в апреле во многих регионах Китая проводятся чрезвычайно красочные мероприятия — так называемые «Праздники цветения груш», привлекающие не только местных жителей, но и туристов со всего мира.

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Увы, это великолепное зрелище можно созерцать лишь весной. Но всему своё время.

В августе созревают плоды груши. Каково же отношение китайцев к этим восхитительным фруктам?

Начнём с того, что традиционно в среде образованных китайцев обычай любования цветением грушевых деревьев ценился всё-таки неизмеримо выше, чем наслаждение вкусом её плодов. Может быть поэтому в ранних книгах по китайской медицине в основном говорится лишь о вреде груш.

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Приведём лишь несколько цитат из этих произведений.

В книге «Травоведение У Пу» (III в.) есть такая запись: «При колотых и резаных ранах, а также кормящим женщинам груши есть нельзя. Избыточное потребление повреждает организм. Не являются полезным продуктом. Употребление во время отдыха после родов, а также при болезни помешает выздоровлению. Употребление груш в большом количестве непременно приведет к болезни».

Отрицательное отношение к груше прослеживается и в книге «Расширенное значение травоведения» (1116 г.): «Избыточное потребление груш повреждает селезёнку... Весьма ценятся лишь пьяницами за способность устранять сильную жажду, но никак не способны изгнать болезнь».

В более поздних книгах появляются записи об эффективности употребления плодов груш при лечении некоторых заболеваний, причем чаще всего речь идет о лечении диабета.

Начнём с рецепта под названием «Напиток лечения диабета», который содержится в знаменитой книге «Рецепты всевозможной помощи» (1409 г.), составленной под руководством Чжу Су (1361—1425 гг.) — пятого сына императора Чжу Юаньчжана (1328—1398 гг.): «Взять груш таких сортов как сян-шуй-ли, э-ли или цзян-нань-сюэ-ли, выжать сок, проварить его с мёдом, разлить в бутылки. Время от времени принимать, растворяя в горячей или холодной воде. После выздоровления приём прекратить».

Подробнейшее описание показаний и противопоказаний к употреблению груш приводится в книге выдающегося китайского ученого и врача Ли Шичжэня (1518—1593 гг.) «Цитаты из книг по травоведению с комментариями» (1590 г.). Ссылаясь на источники времени правления династии Сун (960—1279 гг.), автор поведал о нескольких случаях чудодейственного действия плодов груши в борьбе с диабетом.

Вкратце опишем лишь два из них, опустив приведенные в оригинале имена действующих лиц и специфические термины китайской медицины.

Чиновник императорского двора, страдавший диабетом, был обследован придворным лекарем. Прогноз был неутешительным. Лекарь сообщил, что болезнь уже проникла глубоко в организм и не подлежит лечению, посоветовал поскорее возвращаться в родные края, дабы произвести приготовления к смерти. По пути домой чиновник встретил некоего конского ветеринара, который подтвердил диагноз придворного лекаря, однако посоветовал есть побольше груш. Если не получится жевать, тогда выжимать из них сок. Вернувшись в родные края, больной в течение десяти дней питался лишь грушами, после чего «вновь обрёл здоровье». Придворный лекарь, узнав о чудодейственном исцелении чиновника, был очень поражен способностями ветеринара, рекомендовал его ко двору, где тот впоследствии занял должность главного императорского конюшего.

Ещё один случай. Известный врач обследовал одного больного диабетом учёного человека и предрек ему смерть через три года. Учёный удалился с обследования в весьма безрадостном настроении. Позже он прослышал, что на горе Маошань есть некий даосский монах, который владеет «божественным искусством врачевания». Поскольку монах избегал общения с мирянами и не стремился к известности в среде образованных людей и сильных мира сего, учёный облачился в одежду слуги и отправился к нему в горы на поклон с просьбой принять на службу для выполнения хозяйственных работ. Монах оставил его среди учеников. Через некоторое время учёный поведал монаху о своей болезни. Тот осмотрел его, улыбнулся и сказал: «Спускайся с гор, но изо дня в день съедай по груше. Когда свежие груши закончатся, замачивай в кипятке сушёные, съедай гущу и выпивай сок. Болезнь сама собой пройдёт». Учёный последовал этому совету, а через год вновь посетил знаменитого врача, предрекавшего ему смерть. Увидев его цветущий вид, тот с изумлением сказал: «Вы, должно быть, встречались со святым, иначе в чём же причина столь поразительного исцеления?» Учёный рассказал все подробности. Тогда врач облачился в парадные одеяния и стал отбивать земные поклоны по направлению к горе Маошань, укоряя себя в недостаточности медицинских знаний.

Приведя эти рассказы, Ли Шичжэнь (1518—1593 гг.) делает следующий вывод: «Подобные примеры заставляют усомниться в том, что действие груш столь уж ничтожно, как об этом было сказано в древних медицинских книгах... У груши немало полезных качеств, однако не надо переедать, только и всего!»

В древних и современных книгах по традиционной китайской медицине о пользе и вреде груши сказано немало. Разумеется, понимание приведённого в этих книгах материала требует определенных познаний в области китайской медицины и философии, поэтому ограничимся лишь самыми общими рекомендациями, не углубляясь в тонкости древней науки.

Итак. Плоды груши настоятельно рекомендованы к употреблению при специфическом синдроме китайской медицины под названием «синдром жара». Этот синдром в основном характеризуется стремлением к прохладе, жаждой с предпочтением холодных напитков, сухостью во рту, покраснением лица, тёмно-красным цветом языка. По представлениям китайской медицины, к этому синдрому относятся и основные типы диабета.

В разумных количествах употребление возможно в период летнего зноя и при похмельном синдроме.

Отказаться от груш или хотя бы максимально ограничить их употребление следует при «синдроме холода», который обычно сопровождается ознобами, похолоданием конечностей, предпочтением горячих напитков, светлым цветом языка. Не рекомендуется употребление груш и в послеродовой период, а также после обильной кровопотери. В этих случаях, как правило, появляется синдром «недостатка крови» (бледность, головокружение, шум в ушах, сухость и шелушение кожи, светлый цвет ногтей и языка).

Особой популярностью в Китае издавна пользуется «грушевый сироп от кашля». Однако принимать его можно отнюдь не при всех разновидностях этого симптома. Этот сироп обычно назначается при кашле с отхаркиванием жёлтой вязкой трудно отделяемой мокроты, который относится к упомянутому выше «синдрому жара».

Категорически противопоказан такой сироп при кашле, сопровождающем «синдром холода», когда происходит отхаркивание обильной светлой жидкой мокроты.

Применяются груши и наружно — в свежем виде при ожогах.

Таковы основные рекомендации по употреблению груш с позиций традиционной китайской медицины.

В заключение нашего рассказа приведем немного статистики.

В настоящее время Китай является абсолютным мировым лидером производства груш. По данным Организации по продовольствию и сельскому хозяйству при ООН, в 2010 г. на его долю приходилось 67,3% мирового производства этой культуры. Далее в списке идут Италия (3,25%), США (3,24%), Аргентина (3,11%).

Показатели на душу населения у Китая также достаточно высоки, однако эта страна занимает лишь 7 место (11,4 кг), уступая Бельгии (25 кг), Аргентине (17,5 кг), Португалии (17%), Нидерландам (16,6 кг), Италии (12,3 кг) и Испании (11,7 кг).

Среди стран СНГ лидирует Беларусь — 0,32% мирового производства и 7,6 кг на душу населения.

У России показатели скромнее — 0,18% и 0,3 кг соответственно. Поэтому настоятельно рекомендуем вам посадить дерево груши на участке, если, разумеется, его еще нет.

ОТВЕДАТЬ В ШЕСТУЮ ЛУНУ...

В шестую луну отведать мы рады
Багряные сливы и гроздь винограда

(Шицзин: Книга песен и гимнов.)

В современных источниках указывается, что в приведённом стихотворении речь шла о винограде Тунберга (Vitus thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc.), имеющем мелкие ягоды тёмно-фиолетового цвета.

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В 1995 г. в ходе раскопок близ г. Жичжао в провинции Шаньдун китайско-американской группой археологов под руководством профессора Фан Хуэя было обнаружено более 200 гончарных изделий, а также косточки винограда. Экспертиза показала, что на внутренних стенках некоторых сосудов имеются следы вина и мёда, а сами сосуды были изготовлены 4600 лет назад. По мнению учёных, они были предназначены для хранения вина, приготовленного из дикого винограда с мёдом.

А вот культурный виноград проник в Китай лишь во II в. до н. э. Об этом свидетельствуют записи в древних источниках. Известно, что к I—II вв. н. э. широкого распространения здесь он так и не получил, а лишь некоторое время выращивался в садах императора и аристократов.

Тем не менее, культурный виноград очень высоко ценился за свои вкусовые и лечебные свойства. Особо ценилось виноградное вино. В ограниченных количествах оно завозилось из Средней Азии и было очень дорогим. В ряде древних исторических сочинений описан случай, когда при Восточной династии Хань (25—220 гг.) некий состоятельный человек получил высокую должность начальника округа после того как преподнес влиятельному евнуху 1 ху (приблизительно 100 литров) виноградного вина. Как указано в источнике, евнух «испытал от подношения великую радость».

С призывом заниматься виноградарством и виноделием обращался к подданным Цао Пи (187—226 гг.) — основатель династии Вэй Эпохи Троецарствия. Однако отклика в народе этот призыв так и не получил. Сказались политическая нестабильность, многочисленные разрушительные нашествия кочевников, связанные с этим миграция населения и недостаток сельскохозяйственных площадей, а также сложность агротехники винограда с невозможностью получения стабильных урожаев высокого качества. Кроме того, виноградное вино не могло составить конкуренцию традиционному китайскому вину из зерновых культур, так как его приготовление возможно лишь осенью, тогда как вино из зерна можно готовить в любое время года.

Ко времени правления династии Тан (618—907 гг.) в срединных районах Китая виноградарство было практически неизвестно. В книге «Новая книга южных областей» (XI в.) говорится: «Император Тай-цзун при разгроме Гаочана (древний город) добыл виноград сорта «кобылье молоко» (столовый виноград сорта хусайне («дамские пальчики»), который стал выращивать в императорском саду. Также завладел технологией виноделия... Приготовленное вино было зеленоватого цвета... Лишь тогда в Чанъане* узнали его вкус».

*Чанъань — древняя столица Китая. По мнению многих исследователей, в VII—IX вв. был самым крупным мегаполисом мира с населением 800 000—1 000 000 жителей. Ныне имеет название Сиань, является административным центром провинции Шэньси.

Постепенно начинается выращивание винограда в некоторых внутренних регионах Китая, хотя он так и не стал здесь важной сельскохозяйственной культурой.

Об ограниченности ареала распространения винограда в Китае сообщает венецианский торговец и путешественник Марко Поло (1254—1324 гг.). Вот что сказано об этом в его знаменитой «Книге о разнообразии мира»: «Весь почти народ в области Катай пьёт вот какое вино: приготовляют его из риса с другими хорошими пряностями, и питье выходит лучше всякого другого вина... Город Таян-фу, куда мы пришли, большой и красивый, торговля тут великая, а также промышленность... Много здесь отличных виноградников, и вина выделывается вдоволь; во всей области Катай одно это [виноградное] вино; из того города оно развозится по всей области».

Ко времени правления династии Мин (1368—1644 гг.) китайцам было известно несколько сортов винограда. Вот как, например, описал эти сорта известный учёный Сюй Гуанци (1562—1633 гг.): «„Хрустальный виноград“ имеет крупные овальные ягоды с беловатым налётом, сладкого вкуса. „Фиолетовый виноград“ — чёрного цвета, имеет две разновидности — крупный и мелкий, а также два вкуса — кислый и сладкий. „Зелёный виноград“ из Сычуани после созревания имеет зеленоватый цвет. А „зелёный виноград“ с Запада называется „заячий глаз“, он слаще сахара и мёда, без косточек, является поистине драгоценным продуктом. „Мелкий виноград“ с Запада имеет мелкие плоды размером с горошины чёрного перца. Виноград из Юньнани размером с унаби, имеет исключительно высокие вкусовые качества. Виноград, вывезенный из Персии, размером с куриное яйцо, его можно употреблять в свежем виде или готовить из него вино, а сушить его очень трудно».

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Испокон веков китайская медицина уделяет винограду особое внимание. В древнем классическом трактате «Канон травоведения Священного земледельца» он был описан первым среди продуктов высшего разряда в разделе «Фрукты и овощи», что указывало на его исключительные целебные качества.

Вот что сказано о винограде в этом произведении: «Лечит боль в суставах. Восполняет жизненную энергию Ци, удваивает силу, укрепляет волю. Позволяет человеку быть упитанным и здоровым, делает его устойчивым к голоду, способным противостоять простуде. Длительное потребление придаёт лёгкость телу, позволяет противодействовать старению, продлевает годы жизни».

В древних и современных руководствах по китайской медицине виноград рассматривается как один из основных продуктов питания, способствующих восполнению жизненной энергии Ци и крови. Его употребление в разумных количествах настоятельно рекомендуется при таких специфических синдромах китайской медицины как недостаток Ци и крови, недостаток Ци лёгких, недостаток Инь печени и почек. Также считается, что регулярное употребление винограда способствует усилению умственных способностей человека.

Особенно полезен виноград после болезней с ослаблением организма, детям, беременным женщинам и пожилым людям. Летом и осенью его рекомендуется употреблять в свежем виде, зимой и весной — в виде изюма или сока.

Беременным женщинам при повышенной двигательной активности плода китайскими врачами обычно предписывается употребление дважды в день компота, приготовленного из 30 г винограда или изюма.

По данным Организации по продовольствию и сельскому хозяйству при ООН, в 2010 г. Китай занял первое место в мире по валовому сбору винограда (12,7% мирового производства). Однако по показателям на душу населения он занимает лишь 50 место (6,5 кг). У России показатели скромнее — 0,47% и 2,3 кг соответственно.

Мировыми лидерами в производстве винограда на душу населения являются Чили (165 кг), Италия (134 кг), Испания (131 кг). В этих странах большая часть винограда перерабатывается в вино, в то время как в Китае преобладают столовые и кишмишно-изюмные сорта.

Следует отметить, что столовое вино западного типа не пользуется широкой популярностью в Китае. Здесь традиционно предпочитают сладкое виноградное вино, обычно с добавлением трав и пряностей, иногда полученное путем сбраживания с рисом.

В последнее время ситуация несколько меняется. Вина западного образца становятся модными и престижными среди обеспеченных слоев населения современного Китая. С помощью французских винодельческих компаний в ряде регионов Китая созданы винодельческие предприятия. Китайские виноделы пытаются продвигать свою продукцию на зарубежные рынки, однако в самом Китае сила традиций и вкусов все-таки очень сильна, поэтому ожидать широкого распространения культуры употребления виноградных вин западного типа здесь едва ли возможно.

Основным местом производства винограда в Китае является Турфанский оазис в Синьцзян-Уйгурском автономном районе. Здесь производится 75% изюма в стране. Турфанский виноград имеет очень высокие вкусовые и товарные качества, а изготовленный из него изюм по праву может считаться лучшим в мире.

Осенью в городе Турфан проходит ежегодный праздник винограда «Шёлковый путь». Это необычайно красочное зрелище привлекает туристов со всего мира и является одним из важнейших культурных событий года в регионе.

На улицах города проходят фольклорные представления и концерты, свадебные церемонии в традициях уйгуров, театрализованные представления, шествия караванов верблюдов, экскурсии по особой «виноградной аллее», на которой туристы могут сами срывать свежий виноград.

По данным оргкомитета мероприятия, в 2012 году на праздник винограда в Турфан прибыло более 2000 туристических групп.

ХЕНОМЕЛЕС ПРЕКРАСНАЯ

Мне ты в подарок принёс плод айвы ароматный,
Яшмой прекрасною был мой подарок обратный.
Не для того я дарила, чтоб нам обменяться дарами,
А для того, чтобы вечной осталась любовь между нами.

Шицзин: Книга песен и гимнов

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Сегодня мы поговорим о растении, которое испокон веков пользовалось особой популярностью в Китае. Его ботаническое название — хеномелес прекрасная (Chaenomeles speciosa). Такое название было дано ему европейскими ботаниками в конце XVIII в. Хеномелес — кустовое растение, обычно с колючими ветками и плодами небольшого размера, по виду напоминающими айву. Видимо поэтому оно больше известно у нас как «японская айва».

В отличие от европейцев, китайцы нашли в нем сходство не с айвой, а с маленькой дыней, растущей на небольшом деревце. Перевод китайского названия хеномелес — «древесная дыня» (му-гуа). Известно, что Китай – родина этого растения. Первое упоминание о нём встречается в древнейшем памятнике китайской культуры «Каноне стихов» (XI—VI вв. до н. э.):

Хеномелес — поистине удивительное растение. Удивительно в нем всё — и восхитительные цветки, распускающиеся ранней весной, и целебные свойства плодов, и неповторимый нежный аромат.

Начнём с аромата. Собранные и даже высушенные плоды хеномелеса очень долго сохраняют свой тонкий аромат. Именно поэтому китайцы издавна используют их для ароматизации своих жилищ. В Древнем Китае существовал обычай расставлять блюда с плодами хеномелеса в жилых комнатах, чаще всего в спальных покоях супругов. Считалось, что благоухание этих плодов возбуждает любовное влечение.

В популярном романе «Сон в красном тереме» (XVIII в.) описывается, как один из главных героев романа по имени Цзя Баоюй очутился в спальне красавицы Цинь Кэцин. На столике он увидел золотое блюдо с крупным плодом хеномелеса. «У Баоюя в носу сразу защекотало от какого-то едва уловимого аромата, глаза стали слипаться, он почувствовал во всем теле сладостную истому...» Баоюй погрузился в сон, в котором он общался с небесными феями из сказочного мира Великой пустоты и с волшебным образом самой хозяйки комнаты...

Из высушенных плодов также готовили пудру, которую женщины наносили на лицо и тело.

Нередко плоды хеномелеса раскладывали в сундуках с одеждой и в книжных шкафах. Со временем одежда и книги пропитывались восхитительным ароматом, что не только свидетельствовало об особой утончённости нравов их обладателей, но и предохраняло вещи от моли.

А вот для борьбы с клопами мелко нарезанные плоды хеномелес обычно раскладывали под спальными циновками.

О целебных свойствах плодов хеномелеса в Китае известно очень давно. В народе его издавна называют «плодом вечного долголетия», «царём плодов с сотней полезных свойств».

Известный комментатор древних текстов Лу Дянь (1042—1102 гг.) некогда писал: «Люди говорят, что плод груши обладает сотней вредных и лишь одним полезным свойствами, а плод хеномелеса — сотней полезных и одним вредным».

Знаменитый ученый и врач Тао Хунцзин (456—536 гг.) писал следующее: «Хеномелес особо эффективен в лечении спазма мышц конечностей. При появлении спазма можно просто произносить его название или написать иероглифы «му-гуа» (древесная дыня) на бумаге. Болезнь пройдёт. Объяснения этому явлению нет. В народе также говорят, что ходьба с посохом, изготовленным из древесины хеномелеса, укрепляет сухожилия».

В одной из древних медицинских книг описан следующий случай. Некий человек страдал бери-бери (авитаминоз) с отёками, судорогами и болью в ногах. Однажды, путешествуя по реке на лодке, он поставил ноги на какой-то мешок. Постепенно боль в ногах утихла. Тогда он спросил у лодочника, чем же наполнен мешок. Лодочник ответил, что в мешке плоды хеномелеса. Вернувшись домой, больной взял мешок и наполнил его нарезанными плодами, регулярно топтался по нему ногами и вскоре полностью избавился от своей болезни.

В знаменитой книге «Собрание чудодейственных рецептов Великого спокойствия» (992 г.) сухие и блёклые волосы рекомендуется расчёсывать гребнем с нанесённым на него растительным маслом, настоянном на измельчённых плодах хеномелеса.

В современных руководствах по китайской медицине плод хеномелес отнесён к группе лекарств, основным действием которых является устранение артритов. Среди показаний к применению также указываются спазмы икроножных мышц, бери-бери, отёк и слабость ног, острая рвота и понос.

Из-за кислого вкуса, грубой кожицы и твёрдой мякоти плоды айвы японской в свежем виде практически не употребляют.

В настоящее время в китайской медицине в основном используются слегка отваренные, а затем высушенные на солнце дольки плодов хеномелеса. Вместе с другими лекарствами их вводят в отвары.

В древности способы обработки были несколько иными. Вот что говорится, например, в одной медицинской книге V в.: «При обработке этих плодов нельзя пользоваться железной утварью. Следует срезать медным ножом жёсткую кожуру, удалить семена, нарезать плоды на кусочки и высушить их на солнце. Затем смешать их с молоком жёлтой коровы и варить на пару от части суток Сы (09:00—11:00) до части суток Вэй (13:00—15:00) — до пастообразного состояния, после чего вновь высушить на солнце».

Знаменитый врач Ли Шичжэнь (1518—1593 гг.) предложил свой способ обработки плодов хеномелеса: «Удалить семена, сварить на пару до размягчения, растолочь, добавить мёд и свежий имбирь, вскипятить. Особенно прекрасно принимать это целебное лакомство в зимние месяцы».

Из плодов хеномелеса также готовят медовые цукаты, варенье, настойки, ароматную муку.

Утончённый обычай любования цветением плодовых деревьев — неотъемлемая часть китайской культуры. Не оставляет равнодушными китайцев и вид цветущих деревьев хеномелеса. В последнее время хеномелес находит все большее применение в декоративном садоводстве. Она не боится морозов, хорошо переносит засуху. Так что выращивание этого удивительного растения принесёт вам истинную радость. Весной вы сможете любоваться нежным цветением, осенью айва подарит вам свои плоды, которые не только весьма полезны для здоровья, но и на долгое время наполнят ваш дом чарующим ароматом любви.

[short_text] =>

Для любителей следовать советам китайской народной медицины заметки знатока растений и секретов китайского здоровья Павла Белоусова. Он предлагает посмотреть на грушу, айву и виноград глазами древних и современных китайцев.

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В Китае груша известна с незапамятных времен. Об этом свидетельствуют неоднократные упоминания о её деревьях в древнейшем памятнике китайской культуры «Каноне стихов» (XI—VI вв. до н. э.). Во многих стихотворениях этого канона присутствует сюжет одиноко растущего дерева груши, символизирующий одиночество и печаль.

Издавна особое место в китайской культуре занимают и белоснежные цветущие грушевые деревья. На протяжении веков их вид и благоухание вдохновляют поэтов и художников.

Вряд ли возможно перечислить все стихи китайских поэтов, посвящённые цветению груши. Часто на тему стихотворения одного поэта слагались собственные стихи. Большой популярностью, например, пользовалось стихотворение Ван Вэя (701—761 гг.) «Лепестки грушевых цветов у левых дворцовых ворот»:

Нехотя слетают
На траву у крыльца,
Ветерок относит
Их легко от дверей.
Жёлтой иволге любо
Шалить без конца —
С лепестком впорхнула
В палаты дворца.*

*Перевод А. А. Штейнберга.

Холодная их красота —
Точь-в-точь нетронутый снег.
Чуть слышимый аромат
В одежды мои проник.
А вешний ветр ни на миг
Не замедляет бег, —
Пригнал к нефриту крыльца,
Душистый сугроб воздвиг*

Цю Вэй (694—789 гг.)

Прелестно цветут
И улыбкой радуют взгляд.
Сдается: вот-вот
С мотыльками вспорхнут наравне.
Влетает порой
Вешний ветр сквозь двери палат —
Два-три лепестка
Опустились на платье ко мне*.

Хуанфу Жань (716—769 гг.)

Разумеется, утончённый обычай любования цветением грушевых деревьев сохранился и до наших дней. Ежегодно в апреле во многих регионах Китая проводятся чрезвычайно красочные мероприятия — так называемые «Праздники цветения груш», привлекающие не только местных жителей, но и туристов со всего мира.

b6b1e4acb9.grusha_01jpg.jpg

Увы, это великолепное зрелище можно созерцать лишь весной. Но всему своё время.

В августе созревают плоды груши. Каково же отношение китайцев к этим восхитительным фруктам?

Начнём с того, что традиционно в среде образованных китайцев обычай любования цветением грушевых деревьев ценился всё-таки неизмеримо выше, чем наслаждение вкусом её плодов. Может быть поэтому в ранних книгах по китайской медицине в основном говорится лишь о вреде груш.

6bea08449e.2.jpg

Приведём лишь несколько цитат из этих произведений.

В книге «Травоведение У Пу» (III в.) есть такая запись: «При колотых и резаных ранах, а также кормящим женщинам груши есть нельзя. Избыточное потребление повреждает организм. Не являются полезным продуктом. Употребление во время отдыха после родов, а также при болезни помешает выздоровлению. Употребление груш в большом количестве непременно приведет к болезни».

Отрицательное отношение к груше прослеживается и в книге «Расширенное значение травоведения» (1116 г.): «Избыточное потребление груш повреждает селезёнку... Весьма ценятся лишь пьяницами за способность устранять сильную жажду, но никак не способны изгнать болезнь».

В более поздних книгах появляются записи об эффективности употребления плодов груш при лечении некоторых заболеваний, причем чаще всего речь идет о лечении диабета.

Начнём с рецепта под названием «Напиток лечения диабета», который содержится в знаменитой книге «Рецепты всевозможной помощи» (1409 г.), составленной под руководством Чжу Су (1361—1425 гг.) — пятого сына императора Чжу Юаньчжана (1328—1398 гг.): «Взять груш таких сортов как сян-шуй-ли, э-ли или цзян-нань-сюэ-ли, выжать сок, проварить его с мёдом, разлить в бутылки. Время от времени принимать, растворяя в горячей или холодной воде. После выздоровления приём прекратить».

Подробнейшее описание показаний и противопоказаний к употреблению груш приводится в книге выдающегося китайского ученого и врача Ли Шичжэня (1518—1593 гг.) «Цитаты из книг по травоведению с комментариями» (1590 г.). Ссылаясь на источники времени правления династии Сун (960—1279 гг.), автор поведал о нескольких случаях чудодейственного действия плодов груши в борьбе с диабетом.

Вкратце опишем лишь два из них, опустив приведенные в оригинале имена действующих лиц и специфические термины китайской медицины.

Чиновник императорского двора, страдавший диабетом, был обследован придворным лекарем. Прогноз был неутешительным. Лекарь сообщил, что болезнь уже проникла глубоко в организм и не подлежит лечению, посоветовал поскорее возвращаться в родные края, дабы произвести приготовления к смерти. По пути домой чиновник встретил некоего конского ветеринара, который подтвердил диагноз придворного лекаря, однако посоветовал есть побольше груш. Если не получится жевать, тогда выжимать из них сок. Вернувшись в родные края, больной в течение десяти дней питался лишь грушами, после чего «вновь обрёл здоровье». Придворный лекарь, узнав о чудодейственном исцелении чиновника, был очень поражен способностями ветеринара, рекомендовал его ко двору, где тот впоследствии занял должность главного императорского конюшего.

Ещё один случай. Известный врач обследовал одного больного диабетом учёного человека и предрек ему смерть через три года. Учёный удалился с обследования в весьма безрадостном настроении. Позже он прослышал, что на горе Маошань есть некий даосский монах, который владеет «божественным искусством врачевания». Поскольку монах избегал общения с мирянами и не стремился к известности в среде образованных людей и сильных мира сего, учёный облачился в одежду слуги и отправился к нему в горы на поклон с просьбой принять на службу для выполнения хозяйственных работ. Монах оставил его среди учеников. Через некоторое время учёный поведал монаху о своей болезни. Тот осмотрел его, улыбнулся и сказал: «Спускайся с гор, но изо дня в день съедай по груше. Когда свежие груши закончатся, замачивай в кипятке сушёные, съедай гущу и выпивай сок. Болезнь сама собой пройдёт». Учёный последовал этому совету, а через год вновь посетил знаменитого врача, предрекавшего ему смерть. Увидев его цветущий вид, тот с изумлением сказал: «Вы, должно быть, встречались со святым, иначе в чём же причина столь поразительного исцеления?» Учёный рассказал все подробности. Тогда врач облачился в парадные одеяния и стал отбивать земные поклоны по направлению к горе Маошань, укоряя себя в недостаточности медицинских знаний.

Приведя эти рассказы, Ли Шичжэнь (1518—1593 гг.) делает следующий вывод: «Подобные примеры заставляют усомниться в том, что действие груш столь уж ничтожно, как об этом было сказано в древних медицинских книгах... У груши немало полезных качеств, однако не надо переедать, только и всего!»

В древних и современных книгах по традиционной китайской медицине о пользе и вреде груши сказано немало. Разумеется, понимание приведённого в этих книгах материала требует определенных познаний в области китайской медицины и философии, поэтому ограничимся лишь самыми общими рекомендациями, не углубляясь в тонкости древней науки.

Итак. Плоды груши настоятельно рекомендованы к употреблению при специфическом синдроме китайской медицины под названием «синдром жара». Этот синдром в основном характеризуется стремлением к прохладе, жаждой с предпочтением холодных напитков, сухостью во рту, покраснением лица, тёмно-красным цветом языка. По представлениям китайской медицины, к этому синдрому относятся и основные типы диабета.

В разумных количествах употребление возможно в период летнего зноя и при похмельном синдроме.

Отказаться от груш или хотя бы максимально ограничить их употребление следует при «синдроме холода», который обычно сопровождается ознобами, похолоданием конечностей, предпочтением горячих напитков, светлым цветом языка. Не рекомендуется употребление груш и в послеродовой период, а также после обильной кровопотери. В этих случаях, как правило, появляется синдром «недостатка крови» (бледность, головокружение, шум в ушах, сухость и шелушение кожи, светлый цвет ногтей и языка).

Особой популярностью в Китае издавна пользуется «грушевый сироп от кашля». Однако принимать его можно отнюдь не при всех разновидностях этого симптома. Этот сироп обычно назначается при кашле с отхаркиванием жёлтой вязкой трудно отделяемой мокроты, который относится к упомянутому выше «синдрому жара».

Категорически противопоказан такой сироп при кашле, сопровождающем «синдром холода», когда происходит отхаркивание обильной светлой жидкой мокроты.

Применяются груши и наружно — в свежем виде при ожогах.

Таковы основные рекомендации по употреблению груш с позиций традиционной китайской медицины.

В заключение нашего рассказа приведем немного статистики.

В настоящее время Китай является абсолютным мировым лидером производства груш. По данным Организации по продовольствию и сельскому хозяйству при ООН, в 2010 г. на его долю приходилось 67,3% мирового производства этой культуры. Далее в списке идут Италия (3,25%), США (3,24%), Аргентина (3,11%).

Показатели на душу населения у Китая также достаточно высоки, однако эта страна занимает лишь 7 место (11,4 кг), уступая Бельгии (25 кг), Аргентине (17,5 кг), Португалии (17%), Нидерландам (16,6 кг), Италии (12,3 кг) и Испании (11,7 кг).

Среди стран СНГ лидирует Беларусь — 0,32% мирового производства и 7,6 кг на душу населения.

У России показатели скромнее — 0,18% и 0,3 кг соответственно. Поэтому настоятельно рекомендуем вам посадить дерево груши на участке, если, разумеется, его еще нет.

ОТВЕДАТЬ В ШЕСТУЮ ЛУНУ...

В шестую луну отведать мы рады
Багряные сливы и гроздь винограда

(Шицзин: Книга песен и гимнов.)

В современных источниках указывается, что в приведённом стихотворении речь шла о винограде Тунберга (Vitus thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc.), имеющем мелкие ягоды тёмно-фиолетового цвета.

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В 1995 г. в ходе раскопок близ г. Жичжао в провинции Шаньдун китайско-американской группой археологов под руководством профессора Фан Хуэя было обнаружено более 200 гончарных изделий, а также косточки винограда. Экспертиза показала, что на внутренних стенках некоторых сосудов имеются следы вина и мёда, а сами сосуды были изготовлены 4600 лет назад. По мнению учёных, они были предназначены для хранения вина, приготовленного из дикого винограда с мёдом.

А вот культурный виноград проник в Китай лишь во II в. до н. э. Об этом свидетельствуют записи в древних источниках. Известно, что к I—II вв. н. э. широкого распространения здесь он так и не получил, а лишь некоторое время выращивался в садах императора и аристократов.

Тем не менее, культурный виноград очень высоко ценился за свои вкусовые и лечебные свойства. Особо ценилось виноградное вино. В ограниченных количествах оно завозилось из Средней Азии и было очень дорогим. В ряде древних исторических сочинений описан случай, когда при Восточной династии Хань (25—220 гг.) некий состоятельный человек получил высокую должность начальника округа после того как преподнес влиятельному евнуху 1 ху (приблизительно 100 литров) виноградного вина. Как указано в источнике, евнух «испытал от подношения великую радость».

С призывом заниматься виноградарством и виноделием обращался к подданным Цао Пи (187—226 гг.) — основатель династии Вэй Эпохи Троецарствия. Однако отклика в народе этот призыв так и не получил. Сказались политическая нестабильность, многочисленные разрушительные нашествия кочевников, связанные с этим миграция населения и недостаток сельскохозяйственных площадей, а также сложность агротехники винограда с невозможностью получения стабильных урожаев высокого качества. Кроме того, виноградное вино не могло составить конкуренцию традиционному китайскому вину из зерновых культур, так как его приготовление возможно лишь осенью, тогда как вино из зерна можно готовить в любое время года.

Ко времени правления династии Тан (618—907 гг.) в срединных районах Китая виноградарство было практически неизвестно. В книге «Новая книга южных областей» (XI в.) говорится: «Император Тай-цзун при разгроме Гаочана (древний город) добыл виноград сорта «кобылье молоко» (столовый виноград сорта хусайне («дамские пальчики»), который стал выращивать в императорском саду. Также завладел технологией виноделия... Приготовленное вино было зеленоватого цвета... Лишь тогда в Чанъане* узнали его вкус».

*Чанъань — древняя столица Китая. По мнению многих исследователей, в VII—IX вв. был самым крупным мегаполисом мира с населением 800 000—1 000 000 жителей. Ныне имеет название Сиань, является административным центром провинции Шэньси.

Постепенно начинается выращивание винограда в некоторых внутренних регионах Китая, хотя он так и не стал здесь важной сельскохозяйственной культурой.

Об ограниченности ареала распространения винограда в Китае сообщает венецианский торговец и путешественник Марко Поло (1254—1324 гг.). Вот что сказано об этом в его знаменитой «Книге о разнообразии мира»: «Весь почти народ в области Катай пьёт вот какое вино: приготовляют его из риса с другими хорошими пряностями, и питье выходит лучше всякого другого вина... Город Таян-фу, куда мы пришли, большой и красивый, торговля тут великая, а также промышленность... Много здесь отличных виноградников, и вина выделывается вдоволь; во всей области Катай одно это [виноградное] вино; из того города оно развозится по всей области».

Ко времени правления династии Мин (1368—1644 гг.) китайцам было известно несколько сортов винограда. Вот как, например, описал эти сорта известный учёный Сюй Гуанци (1562—1633 гг.): «„Хрустальный виноград“ имеет крупные овальные ягоды с беловатым налётом, сладкого вкуса. „Фиолетовый виноград“ — чёрного цвета, имеет две разновидности — крупный и мелкий, а также два вкуса — кислый и сладкий. „Зелёный виноград“ из Сычуани после созревания имеет зеленоватый цвет. А „зелёный виноград“ с Запада называется „заячий глаз“, он слаще сахара и мёда, без косточек, является поистине драгоценным продуктом. „Мелкий виноград“ с Запада имеет мелкие плоды размером с горошины чёрного перца. Виноград из Юньнани размером с унаби, имеет исключительно высокие вкусовые качества. Виноград, вывезенный из Персии, размером с куриное яйцо, его можно употреблять в свежем виде или готовить из него вино, а сушить его очень трудно».

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Испокон веков китайская медицина уделяет винограду особое внимание. В древнем классическом трактате «Канон травоведения Священного земледельца» он был описан первым среди продуктов высшего разряда в разделе «Фрукты и овощи», что указывало на его исключительные целебные качества.

Вот что сказано о винограде в этом произведении: «Лечит боль в суставах. Восполняет жизненную энергию Ци, удваивает силу, укрепляет волю. Позволяет человеку быть упитанным и здоровым, делает его устойчивым к голоду, способным противостоять простуде. Длительное потребление придаёт лёгкость телу, позволяет противодействовать старению, продлевает годы жизни».

В древних и современных руководствах по китайской медицине виноград рассматривается как один из основных продуктов питания, способствующих восполнению жизненной энергии Ци и крови. Его употребление в разумных количествах настоятельно рекомендуется при таких специфических синдромах китайской медицины как недостаток Ци и крови, недостаток Ци лёгких, недостаток Инь печени и почек. Также считается, что регулярное употребление винограда способствует усилению умственных способностей человека.

Особенно полезен виноград после болезней с ослаблением организма, детям, беременным женщинам и пожилым людям. Летом и осенью его рекомендуется употреблять в свежем виде, зимой и весной — в виде изюма или сока.

Беременным женщинам при повышенной двигательной активности плода китайскими врачами обычно предписывается употребление дважды в день компота, приготовленного из 30 г винограда или изюма.

По данным Организации по продовольствию и сельскому хозяйству при ООН, в 2010 г. Китай занял первое место в мире по валовому сбору винограда (12,7% мирового производства). Однако по показателям на душу населения он занимает лишь 50 место (6,5 кг). У России показатели скромнее — 0,47% и 2,3 кг соответственно.

Мировыми лидерами в производстве винограда на душу населения являются Чили (165 кг), Италия (134 кг), Испания (131 кг). В этих странах большая часть винограда перерабатывается в вино, в то время как в Китае преобладают столовые и кишмишно-изюмные сорта.

Следует отметить, что столовое вино западного типа не пользуется широкой популярностью в Китае. Здесь традиционно предпочитают сладкое виноградное вино, обычно с добавлением трав и пряностей, иногда полученное путем сбраживания с рисом.

В последнее время ситуация несколько меняется. Вина западного образца становятся модными и престижными среди обеспеченных слоев населения современного Китая. С помощью французских винодельческих компаний в ряде регионов Китая созданы винодельческие предприятия. Китайские виноделы пытаются продвигать свою продукцию на зарубежные рынки, однако в самом Китае сила традиций и вкусов все-таки очень сильна, поэтому ожидать широкого распространения культуры употребления виноградных вин западного типа здесь едва ли возможно.

Основным местом производства винограда в Китае является Турфанский оазис в Синьцзян-Уйгурском автономном районе. Здесь производится 75% изюма в стране. Турфанский виноград имеет очень высокие вкусовые и товарные качества, а изготовленный из него изюм по праву может считаться лучшим в мире.

Осенью в городе Турфан проходит ежегодный праздник винограда «Шёлковый путь». Это необычайно красочное зрелище привлекает туристов со всего мира и является одним из важнейших культурных событий года в регионе.

На улицах города проходят фольклорные представления и концерты, свадебные церемонии в традициях уйгуров, театрализованные представления, шествия караванов верблюдов, экскурсии по особой «виноградной аллее», на которой туристы могут сами срывать свежий виноград.

По данным оргкомитета мероприятия, в 2012 году на праздник винограда в Турфан прибыло более 2000 туристических групп.

ХЕНОМЕЛЕС ПРЕКРАСНАЯ

Мне ты в подарок принёс плод айвы ароматный,
Яшмой прекрасною был мой подарок обратный.
Не для того я дарила, чтоб нам обменяться дарами,
А для того, чтобы вечной осталась любовь между нами.

Шицзин: Книга песен и гимнов

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Сегодня мы поговорим о растении, которое испокон веков пользовалось особой популярностью в Китае. Его ботаническое название — хеномелес прекрасная (Chaenomeles speciosa). Такое название было дано ему европейскими ботаниками в конце XVIII в. Хеномелес — кустовое растение, обычно с колючими ветками и плодами небольшого размера, по виду напоминающими айву. Видимо поэтому оно больше известно у нас как «японская айва».

В отличие от европейцев, китайцы нашли в нем сходство не с айвой, а с маленькой дыней, растущей на небольшом деревце. Перевод китайского названия хеномелес — «древесная дыня» (му-гуа). Известно, что Китай – родина этого растения. Первое упоминание о нём встречается в древнейшем памятнике китайской культуры «Каноне стихов» (XI—VI вв. до н. э.):

Хеномелес — поистине удивительное растение. Удивительно в нем всё — и восхитительные цветки, распускающиеся ранней весной, и целебные свойства плодов, и неповторимый нежный аромат.

Начнём с аромата. Собранные и даже высушенные плоды хеномелеса очень долго сохраняют свой тонкий аромат. Именно поэтому китайцы издавна используют их для ароматизации своих жилищ. В Древнем Китае существовал обычай расставлять блюда с плодами хеномелеса в жилых комнатах, чаще всего в спальных покоях супругов. Считалось, что благоухание этих плодов возбуждает любовное влечение.

В популярном романе «Сон в красном тереме» (XVIII в.) описывается, как один из главных героев романа по имени Цзя Баоюй очутился в спальне красавицы Цинь Кэцин. На столике он увидел золотое блюдо с крупным плодом хеномелеса. «У Баоюя в носу сразу защекотало от какого-то едва уловимого аромата, глаза стали слипаться, он почувствовал во всем теле сладостную истому...» Баоюй погрузился в сон, в котором он общался с небесными феями из сказочного мира Великой пустоты и с волшебным образом самой хозяйки комнаты...

Из высушенных плодов также готовили пудру, которую женщины наносили на лицо и тело.

Нередко плоды хеномелеса раскладывали в сундуках с одеждой и в книжных шкафах. Со временем одежда и книги пропитывались восхитительным ароматом, что не только свидетельствовало об особой утончённости нравов их обладателей, но и предохраняло вещи от моли.

А вот для борьбы с клопами мелко нарезанные плоды хеномелес обычно раскладывали под спальными циновками.

О целебных свойствах плодов хеномелеса в Китае известно очень давно. В народе его издавна называют «плодом вечного долголетия», «царём плодов с сотней полезных свойств».

Известный комментатор древних текстов Лу Дянь (1042—1102 гг.) некогда писал: «Люди говорят, что плод груши обладает сотней вредных и лишь одним полезным свойствами, а плод хеномелеса — сотней полезных и одним вредным».

Знаменитый ученый и врач Тао Хунцзин (456—536 гг.) писал следующее: «Хеномелес особо эффективен в лечении спазма мышц конечностей. При появлении спазма можно просто произносить его название или написать иероглифы «му-гуа» (древесная дыня) на бумаге. Болезнь пройдёт. Объяснения этому явлению нет. В народе также говорят, что ходьба с посохом, изготовленным из древесины хеномелеса, укрепляет сухожилия».

В одной из древних медицинских книг описан следующий случай. Некий человек страдал бери-бери (авитаминоз) с отёками, судорогами и болью в ногах. Однажды, путешествуя по реке на лодке, он поставил ноги на какой-то мешок. Постепенно боль в ногах утихла. Тогда он спросил у лодочника, чем же наполнен мешок. Лодочник ответил, что в мешке плоды хеномелеса. Вернувшись домой, больной взял мешок и наполнил его нарезанными плодами, регулярно топтался по нему ногами и вскоре полностью избавился от своей болезни.

В знаменитой книге «Собрание чудодейственных рецептов Великого спокойствия» (992 г.) сухие и блёклые волосы рекомендуется расчёсывать гребнем с нанесённым на него растительным маслом, настоянном на измельчённых плодах хеномелеса.

В современных руководствах по китайской медицине плод хеномелес отнесён к группе лекарств, основным действием которых является устранение артритов. Среди показаний к применению также указываются спазмы икроножных мышц, бери-бери, отёк и слабость ног, острая рвота и понос.

Из-за кислого вкуса, грубой кожицы и твёрдой мякоти плоды айвы японской в свежем виде практически не употребляют.

В настоящее время в китайской медицине в основном используются слегка отваренные, а затем высушенные на солнце дольки плодов хеномелеса. Вместе с другими лекарствами их вводят в отвары.

В древности способы обработки были несколько иными. Вот что говорится, например, в одной медицинской книге V в.: «При обработке этих плодов нельзя пользоваться железной утварью. Следует срезать медным ножом жёсткую кожуру, удалить семена, нарезать плоды на кусочки и высушить их на солнце. Затем смешать их с молоком жёлтой коровы и варить на пару от части суток Сы (09:00—11:00) до части суток Вэй (13:00—15:00) — до пастообразного состояния, после чего вновь высушить на солнце».

Знаменитый врач Ли Шичжэнь (1518—1593 гг.) предложил свой способ обработки плодов хеномелеса: «Удалить семена, сварить на пару до размягчения, растолочь, добавить мёд и свежий имбирь, вскипятить. Особенно прекрасно принимать это целебное лакомство в зимние месяцы».

Из плодов хеномелеса также готовят медовые цукаты, варенье, настойки, ароматную муку.

Утончённый обычай любования цветением плодовых деревьев — неотъемлемая часть китайской культуры. Не оставляет равнодушными китайцев и вид цветущих деревьев хеномелеса. В последнее время хеномелес находит все большее применение в декоративном садоводстве. Она не боится морозов, хорошо переносит засуху. Так что выращивание этого удивительного растения принесёт вам истинную радость. Весной вы сможете любоваться нежным цветением, осенью айва подарит вам свои плоды, которые не только весьма полезны для здоровья, но и на долгое время наполнят ваш дом чарующим ароматом любви.

[short_text] =>

Для любителей следовать советам китайской народной медицины заметки знатока растений и секретов китайского здоровья Павла Белоусова. Он предлагает посмотреть на грушу, айву и виноград глазами древних и современных китайцев.

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В Китае груша известна с незапамятных времен. Об этом свидетельствуют неоднократные упоминания о её деревьях в древнейшем памятнике китайской культуры «Каноне стихов» (XI—VI вв. до н. э.). Во многих стихотворениях этого канона присутствует сюжет одиноко растущего дерева груши, символизирующий одиночество и печаль.

Издавна особое место в китайской культуре занимают и белоснежные цветущие грушевые деревья. На протяжении веков их вид и благоухание вдохновляют поэтов и художников.

Вряд ли возможно перечислить все стихи китайских поэтов, посвящённые цветению груши. Часто на тему стихотворения одного поэта слагались собственные стихи. Большой популярностью, например, пользовалось стихотворение Ван Вэя (701—761 гг.) «Лепестки грушевых цветов у левых дворцовых ворот»:

Нехотя слетают
На траву у крыльца,
Ветерок относит
Их легко от дверей.
Жёлтой иволге любо
Шалить без конца —
С лепестком впорхнула
В палаты дворца.*

*Перевод А. А. Штейнберга.

Холодная их красота —
Точь-в-точь нетронутый снег.
Чуть слышимый аромат
В одежды мои проник.
А вешний ветр ни на миг
Не замедляет бег, —
Пригнал к нефриту крыльца,
Душистый сугроб воздвиг*

Цю Вэй (694—789 гг.)

Прелестно цветут
И улыбкой радуют взгляд.
Сдается: вот-вот
С мотыльками вспорхнут наравне.
Влетает порой
Вешний ветр сквозь двери палат —
Два-три лепестка
Опустились на платье ко мне*.

Хуанфу Жань (716—769 гг.)

Разумеется, утончённый обычай любования цветением грушевых деревьев сохранился и до наших дней. Ежегодно в апреле во многих регионах Китая проводятся чрезвычайно красочные мероприятия — так называемые «Праздники цветения груш», привлекающие не только местных жителей, но и туристов со всего мира.

b6b1e4acb9.grusha_01jpg.jpg

Увы, это великолепное зрелище можно созерцать лишь весной. Но всему своё время.

В августе созревают плоды груши. Каково же отношение китайцев к этим восхитительным фруктам?

Начнём с того, что традиционно в среде образованных китайцев обычай любования цветением грушевых деревьев ценился всё-таки неизмеримо выше, чем наслаждение вкусом её плодов. Может быть поэтому в ранних книгах по китайской медицине в основном говорится лишь о вреде груш.

6bea08449e.2.jpg

Приведём лишь несколько цитат из этих произведений.

В книге «Травоведение У Пу» (III в.) есть такая запись: «При колотых и резаных ранах, а также кормящим женщинам груши есть нельзя. Избыточное потребление повреждает организм. Не являются полезным продуктом. Употребление во время отдыха после родов, а также при болезни помешает выздоровлению. Употребление груш в большом количестве непременно приведет к болезни».

Отрицательное отношение к груше прослеживается и в книге «Расширенное значение травоведения» (1116 г.): «Избыточное потребление груш повреждает селезёнку... Весьма ценятся лишь пьяницами за способность устранять сильную жажду, но никак не способны изгнать болезнь».

В более поздних книгах появляются записи об эффективности употребления плодов груш при лечении некоторых заболеваний, причем чаще всего речь идет о лечении диабета.

Начнём с рецепта под названием «Напиток лечения диабета», который содержится в знаменитой книге «Рецепты всевозможной помощи» (1409 г.), составленной под руководством Чжу Су (1361—1425 гг.) — пятого сына императора Чжу Юаньчжана (1328—1398 гг.): «Взять груш таких сортов как сян-шуй-ли, э-ли или цзян-нань-сюэ-ли, выжать сок, проварить его с мёдом, разлить в бутылки. Время от времени принимать, растворяя в горячей или холодной воде. После выздоровления приём прекратить».

Подробнейшее описание показаний и противопоказаний к употреблению груш приводится в книге выдающегося китайского ученого и врача Ли Шичжэня (1518—1593 гг.) «Цитаты из книг по травоведению с комментариями» (1590 г.). Ссылаясь на источники времени правления династии Сун (960—1279 гг.), автор поведал о нескольких случаях чудодейственного действия плодов груши в борьбе с диабетом.

Вкратце опишем лишь два из них, опустив приведенные в оригинале имена действующих лиц и специфические термины китайской медицины.

Чиновник императорского двора, страдавший диабетом, был обследован придворным лекарем. Прогноз был неутешительным. Лекарь сообщил, что болезнь уже проникла глубоко в организм и не подлежит лечению, посоветовал поскорее возвращаться в родные края, дабы произвести приготовления к смерти. По пути домой чиновник встретил некоего конского ветеринара, который подтвердил диагноз придворного лекаря, однако посоветовал есть побольше груш. Если не получится жевать, тогда выжимать из них сок. Вернувшись в родные края, больной в течение десяти дней питался лишь грушами, после чего «вновь обрёл здоровье». Придворный лекарь, узнав о чудодейственном исцелении чиновника, был очень поражен способностями ветеринара, рекомендовал его ко двору, где тот впоследствии занял должность главного императорского конюшего.

Ещё один случай. Известный врач обследовал одного больного диабетом учёного человека и предрек ему смерть через три года. Учёный удалился с обследования в весьма безрадостном настроении. Позже он прослышал, что на горе Маошань есть некий даосский монах, который владеет «божественным искусством врачевания». Поскольку монах избегал общения с мирянами и не стремился к известности в среде образованных людей и сильных мира сего, учёный облачился в одежду слуги и отправился к нему в горы на поклон с просьбой принять на службу для выполнения хозяйственных работ. Монах оставил его среди учеников. Через некоторое время учёный поведал монаху о своей болезни. Тот осмотрел его, улыбнулся и сказал: «Спускайся с гор, но изо дня в день съедай по груше. Когда свежие груши закончатся, замачивай в кипятке сушёные, съедай гущу и выпивай сок. Болезнь сама собой пройдёт». Учёный последовал этому совету, а через год вновь посетил знаменитого врача, предрекавшего ему смерть. Увидев его цветущий вид, тот с изумлением сказал: «Вы, должно быть, встречались со святым, иначе в чём же причина столь поразительного исцеления?» Учёный рассказал все подробности. Тогда врач облачился в парадные одеяния и стал отбивать земные поклоны по направлению к горе Маошань, укоряя себя в недостаточности медицинских знаний.

Приведя эти рассказы, Ли Шичжэнь (1518—1593 гг.) делает следующий вывод: «Подобные примеры заставляют усомниться в том, что действие груш столь уж ничтожно, как об этом было сказано в древних медицинских книгах... У груши немало полезных качеств, однако не надо переедать, только и всего!»

В древних и современных книгах по традиционной китайской медицине о пользе и вреде груши сказано немало. Разумеется, понимание приведённого в этих книгах материала требует определенных познаний в области китайской медицины и философии, поэтому ограничимся лишь самыми общими рекомендациями, не углубляясь в тонкости древней науки.

Итак. Плоды груши настоятельно рекомендованы к употреблению при специфическом синдроме китайской медицины под названием «синдром жара». Этот синдром в основном характеризуется стремлением к прохладе, жаждой с предпочтением холодных напитков, сухостью во рту, покраснением лица, тёмно-красным цветом языка. По представлениям китайской медицины, к этому синдрому относятся и основные типы диабета.

В разумных количествах употребление возможно в период летнего зноя и при похмельном синдроме.

Отказаться от груш или хотя бы максимально ограничить их употребление следует при «синдроме холода», который обычно сопровождается ознобами, похолоданием конечностей, предпочтением горячих напитков, светлым цветом языка. Не рекомендуется употребление груш и в послеродовой период, а также после обильной кровопотери. В этих случаях, как правило, появляется синдром «недостатка крови» (бледность, головокружение, шум в ушах, сухость и шелушение кожи, светлый цвет ногтей и языка).

Особой популярностью в Китае издавна пользуется «грушевый сироп от кашля». Однако принимать его можно отнюдь не при всех разновидностях этого симптома. Этот сироп обычно назначается при кашле с отхаркиванием жёлтой вязкой трудно отделяемой мокроты, который относится к упомянутому выше «синдрому жара».

Категорически противопоказан такой сироп при кашле, сопровождающем «синдром холода», когда происходит отхаркивание обильной светлой жидкой мокроты.

Применяются груши и наружно — в свежем виде при ожогах.

Таковы основные рекомендации по употреблению груш с позиций традиционной китайской медицины.

В заключение нашего рассказа приведем немного статистики.

В настоящее время Китай является абсолютным мировым лидером производства груш. По данным Организации по продовольствию и сельскому хозяйству при ООН, в 2010 г. на его долю приходилось 67,3% мирового производства этой культуры. Далее в списке идут Италия (3,25%), США (3,24%), Аргентина (3,11%).

Показатели на душу населения у Китая также достаточно высоки, однако эта страна занимает лишь 7 место (11,4 кг), уступая Бельгии (25 кг), Аргентине (17,5 кг), Португалии (17%), Нидерландам (16,6 кг), Италии (12,3 кг) и Испании (11,7 кг).

Среди стран СНГ лидирует Беларусь — 0,32% мирового производства и 7,6 кг на душу населения.

У России показатели скромнее — 0,18% и 0,3 кг соответственно. Поэтому настоятельно рекомендуем вам посадить дерево груши на участке, если, разумеется, его еще нет.

ОТВЕДАТЬ В ШЕСТУЮ ЛУНУ...

В шестую луну отведать мы рады
Багряные сливы и гроздь винограда

(Шицзин: Книга песен и гимнов.)

В современных источниках указывается, что в приведённом стихотворении речь шла о винограде Тунберга (Vitus thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc.), имеющем мелкие ягоды тёмно-фиолетового цвета.

e95107e92d.grozdy-kitajskogo-vinograda.j

В 1995 г. в ходе раскопок близ г. Жичжао в провинции Шаньдун китайско-американской группой археологов под руководством профессора Фан Хуэя было обнаружено более 200 гончарных изделий, а также косточки винограда. Экспертиза показала, что на внутренних стенках некоторых сосудов имеются следы вина и мёда, а сами сосуды были изготовлены 4600 лет назад. По мнению учёных, они были предназначены для хранения вина, приготовленного из дикого винограда с мёдом.

А вот культурный виноград проник в Китай лишь во II в. до н. э. Об этом свидетельствуют записи в древних источниках. Известно, что к I—II вв. н. э. широкого распространения здесь он так и не получил, а лишь некоторое время выращивался в садах императора и аристократов.

Тем не менее, культурный виноград очень высоко ценился за свои вкусовые и лечебные свойства. Особо ценилось виноградное вино. В ограниченных количествах оно завозилось из Средней Азии и было очень дорогим. В ряде древних исторических сочинений описан случай, когда при Восточной династии Хань (25—220 гг.) некий состоятельный человек получил высокую должность начальника округа после того как преподнес влиятельному евнуху 1 ху (приблизительно 100 литров) виноградного вина. Как указано в источнике, евнух «испытал от подношения великую радость».

С призывом заниматься виноградарством и виноделием обращался к подданным Цао Пи (187—226 гг.) — основатель династии Вэй Эпохи Троецарствия. Однако отклика в народе этот призыв так и не получил. Сказались политическая нестабильность, многочисленные разрушительные нашествия кочевников, связанные с этим миграция населения и недостаток сельскохозяйственных площадей, а также сложность агротехники винограда с невозможностью получения стабильных урожаев высокого качества. Кроме того, виноградное вино не могло составить конкуренцию традиционному китайскому вину из зерновых культур, так как его приготовление возможно лишь осенью, тогда как вино из зерна можно готовить в любое время года.

Ко времени правления династии Тан (618—907 гг.) в срединных районах Китая виноградарство было практически неизвестно. В книге «Новая книга южных областей» (XI в.) говорится: «Император Тай-цзун при разгроме Гаочана (древний город) добыл виноград сорта «кобылье молоко» (столовый виноград сорта хусайне («дамские пальчики»), который стал выращивать в императорском саду. Также завладел технологией виноделия... Приготовленное вино было зеленоватого цвета... Лишь тогда в Чанъане* узнали его вкус».

*Чанъань — древняя столица Китая. По мнению многих исследователей, в VII—IX вв. был самым крупным мегаполисом мира с населением 800 000—1 000 000 жителей. Ныне имеет название Сиань, является административным центром провинции Шэньси.

Постепенно начинается выращивание винограда в некоторых внутренних регионах Китая, хотя он так и не стал здесь важной сельскохозяйственной культурой.

Об ограниченности ареала распространения винограда в Китае сообщает венецианский торговец и путешественник Марко Поло (1254—1324 гг.). Вот что сказано об этом в его знаменитой «Книге о разнообразии мира»: «Весь почти народ в области Катай пьёт вот какое вино: приготовляют его из риса с другими хорошими пряностями, и питье выходит лучше всякого другого вина... Город Таян-фу, куда мы пришли, большой и красивый, торговля тут великая, а также промышленность... Много здесь отличных виноградников, и вина выделывается вдоволь; во всей области Катай одно это [виноградное] вино; из того города оно развозится по всей области».

Ко времени правления династии Мин (1368—1644 гг.) китайцам было известно несколько сортов винограда. Вот как, например, описал эти сорта известный учёный Сюй Гуанци (1562—1633 гг.): «„Хрустальный виноград“ имеет крупные овальные ягоды с беловатым налётом, сладкого вкуса. „Фиолетовый виноград“ — чёрного цвета, имеет две разновидности — крупный и мелкий, а также два вкуса — кислый и сладкий. „Зелёный виноград“ из Сычуани после созревания имеет зеленоватый цвет. А „зелёный виноград“ с Запада называется „заячий глаз“, он слаще сахара и мёда, без косточек, является поистине драгоценным продуктом. „Мелкий виноград“ с Запада имеет мелкие плоды размером с горошины чёрного перца. Виноград из Юньнани размером с унаби, имеет исключительно высокие вкусовые качества. Виноград, вывезенный из Персии, размером с куриное яйцо, его можно употреблять в свежем виде или готовить из него вино, а сушить его очень трудно».

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Испокон веков китайская медицина уделяет винограду особое внимание. В древнем классическом трактате «Канон травоведения Священного земледельца» он был описан первым среди продуктов высшего разряда в разделе «Фрукты и овощи», что указывало на его исключительные целебные качества.

Вот что сказано о винограде в этом произведении: «Лечит боль в суставах. Восполняет жизненную энергию Ци, удваивает силу, укрепляет волю. Позволяет человеку быть упитанным и здоровым, делает его устойчивым к голоду, способным противостоять простуде. Длительное потребление придаёт лёгкость телу, позволяет противодействовать старению, продлевает годы жизни».

В древних и современных руководствах по китайской медицине виноград рассматривается как один из основных продуктов питания, способствующих восполнению жизненной энергии Ци и крови. Его употребление в разумных количествах настоятельно рекомендуется при таких специфических синдромах китайской медицины как недостаток Ци и крови, недостаток Ци лёгких, недостаток Инь печени и почек. Также считается, что регулярное употребление винограда способствует усилению умственных способностей человека.

Особенно полезен виноград после болезней с ослаблением организма, детям, беременным женщинам и пожилым людям. Летом и осенью его рекомендуется употреблять в свежем виде, зимой и весной — в виде изюма или сока.

Беременным женщинам при повышенной двигательной активности плода китайскими врачами обычно предписывается употребление дважды в день компота, приготовленного из 30 г винограда или изюма.

По данным Организации по продовольствию и сельскому хозяйству при ООН, в 2010 г. Китай занял первое место в мире по валовому сбору винограда (12,7% мирового производства). Однако по показателям на душу населения он занимает лишь 50 место (6,5 кг). У России показатели скромнее — 0,47% и 2,3 кг соответственно.

Мировыми лидерами в производстве винограда на душу населения являются Чили (165 кг), Италия (134 кг), Испания (131 кг). В этих странах большая часть винограда перерабатывается в вино, в то время как в Китае преобладают столовые и кишмишно-изюмные сорта.

Следует отметить, что столовое вино западного типа не пользуется широкой популярностью в Китае. Здесь традиционно предпочитают сладкое виноградное вино, обычно с добавлением трав и пряностей, иногда полученное путем сбраживания с рисом.

В последнее время ситуация несколько меняется. Вина западного образца становятся модными и престижными среди обеспеченных слоев населения современного Китая. С помощью французских винодельческих компаний в ряде регионов Китая созданы винодельческие предприятия. Китайские виноделы пытаются продвигать свою продукцию на зарубежные рынки, однако в самом Китае сила традиций и вкусов все-таки очень сильна, поэтому ожидать широкого распространения культуры употребления виноградных вин западного типа здесь едва ли возможно.

Основным местом производства винограда в Китае является Турфанский оазис в Синьцзян-Уйгурском автономном районе. Здесь производится 75% изюма в стране. Турфанский виноград имеет очень высокие вкусовые и товарные качества, а изготовленный из него изюм по праву может считаться лучшим в мире.

Осенью в городе Турфан проходит ежегодный праздник винограда «Шёлковый путь». Это необычайно красочное зрелище привлекает туристов со всего мира и является одним из важнейших культурных событий года в регионе.

На улицах города проходят фольклорные представления и концерты, свадебные церемонии в традициях уйгуров, театрализованные представления, шествия караванов верблюдов, экскурсии по особой «виноградной аллее», на которой туристы могут сами срывать свежий виноград.

По данным оргкомитета мероприятия, в 2012 году на праздник винограда в Турфан прибыло более 2000 туристических групп.

ХЕНОМЕЛЕС ПРЕКРАСНАЯ

Мне ты в подарок принёс плод айвы ароматный,
Яшмой прекрасною был мой подарок обратный.
Не для того я дарила, чтоб нам обменяться дарами,
А для того, чтобы вечной осталась любовь между нами.

Шицзин: Книга песен и гимнов

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Сегодня мы поговорим о растении, которое испокон веков пользовалось особой популярностью в Китае. Его ботаническое название — хеномелес прекрасная (Chaenomeles speciosa). Такое название было дано ему европейскими ботаниками в конце XVIII в. Хеномелес — кустовое растение, обычно с колючими ветками и плодами небольшого размера, по виду напоминающими айву. Видимо поэтому оно больше известно у нас как «японская айва».

В отличие от европейцев, китайцы нашли в нем сходство не с айвой, а с маленькой дыней, растущей на небольшом деревце. Перевод китайского названия хеномелес — «древесная дыня» (му-гуа). Известно, что Китай – родина этого растения. Первое упоминание о нём встречается в древнейшем памятнике китайской культуры «Каноне стихов» (XI—VI вв. до н. э.):

Хеномелес — поистине удивительное растение. Удивительно в нем всё — и восхитительные цветки, распускающиеся ранней весной, и целебные свойства плодов, и неповторимый нежный аромат.

Начнём с аромата. Собранные и даже высушенные плоды хеномелеса очень долго сохраняют свой тонкий аромат. Именно поэтому китайцы издавна используют их для ароматизации своих жилищ. В Древнем Китае существовал обычай расставлять блюда с плодами хеномелеса в жилых комнатах, чаще всего в спальных покоях супругов. Считалось, что благоухание этих плодов возбуждает любовное влечение.

В популярном романе «Сон в красном тереме» (XVIII в.) описывается, как один из главных героев романа по имени Цзя Баоюй очутился в спальне красавицы Цинь Кэцин. На столике он увидел золотое блюдо с крупным плодом хеномелеса. «У Баоюя в носу сразу защекотало от какого-то едва уловимого аромата, глаза стали слипаться, он почувствовал во всем теле сладостную истому...» Баоюй погрузился в сон, в котором он общался с небесными феями из сказочного мира Великой пустоты и с волшебным образом самой хозяйки комнаты...

Из высушенных плодов также готовили пудру, которую женщины наносили на лицо и тело.

Нередко плоды хеномелеса раскладывали в сундуках с одеждой и в книжных шкафах. Со временем одежда и книги пропитывались восхитительным ароматом, что не только свидетельствовало об особой утончённости нравов их обладателей, но и предохраняло вещи от моли.

А вот для борьбы с клопами мелко нарезанные плоды хеномелес обычно раскладывали под спальными циновками.

О целебных свойствах плодов хеномелеса в Китае известно очень давно. В народе его издавна называют «плодом вечного долголетия», «царём плодов с сотней полезных свойств».

Известный комментатор древних текстов Лу Дянь (1042—1102 гг.) некогда писал: «Люди говорят, что плод груши обладает сотней вредных и лишь одним полезным свойствами, а плод хеномелеса — сотней полезных и одним вредным».

Знаменитый ученый и врач Тао Хунцзин (456—536 гг.) писал следующее: «Хеномелес особо эффективен в лечении спазма мышц конечностей. При появлении спазма можно просто произносить его название или написать иероглифы «му-гуа» (древесная дыня) на бумаге. Болезнь пройдёт. Объяснения этому явлению нет. В народе также говорят, что ходьба с посохом, изготовленным из древесины хеномелеса, укрепляет сухожилия».

В одной из древних медицинских книг описан следующий случай. Некий человек страдал бери-бери (авитаминоз) с отёками, судорогами и болью в ногах. Однажды, путешествуя по реке на лодке, он поставил ноги на какой-то мешок. Постепенно боль в ногах утихла. Тогда он спросил у лодочника, чем же наполнен мешок. Лодочник ответил, что в мешке плоды хеномелеса. Вернувшись домой, больной взял мешок и наполнил его нарезанными плодами, регулярно топтался по нему ногами и вскоре полностью избавился от своей болезни.

В знаменитой книге «Собрание чудодейственных рецептов Великого спокойствия» (992 г.) сухие и блёклые волосы рекомендуется расчёсывать гребнем с нанесённым на него растительным маслом, настоянном на измельчённых плодах хеномелеса.

В современных руководствах по китайской медицине плод хеномелес отнесён к группе лекарств, основным действием которых является устранение артритов. Среди показаний к применению также указываются спазмы икроножных мышц, бери-бери, отёк и слабость ног, острая рвота и понос.

Из-за кислого вкуса, грубой кожицы и твёрдой мякоти плоды айвы японской в свежем виде практически не употребляют.

В настоящее время в китайской медицине в основном используются слегка отваренные, а затем высушенные на солнце дольки плодов хеномелеса. Вместе с другими лекарствами их вводят в отвары.

В древности способы обработки были несколько иными. Вот что говорится, например, в одной медицинской книге V в.: «При обработке этих плодов нельзя пользоваться железной утварью. Следует срезать медным ножом жёсткую кожуру, удалить семена, нарезать плоды на кусочки и высушить их на солнце. Затем смешать их с молоком жёлтой коровы и варить на пару от части суток Сы (09:00—11:00) до части суток Вэй (13:00—15:00) — до пастообразного состояния, после чего вновь высушить на солнце».

Знаменитый врач Ли Шичжэнь (1518—1593 гг.) предложил свой способ обработки плодов хеномелеса: «Удалить семена, сварить на пару до размягчения, растолочь, добавить мёд и свежий имбирь, вскипятить. Особенно прекрасно принимать это целебное лакомство в зимние месяцы».

Из плодов хеномелеса также готовят медовые цукаты, варенье, настойки, ароматную муку.

Утончённый обычай любования цветением плодовых деревьев — неотъемлемая часть китайской культуры. Не оставляет равнодушными китайцев и вид цветущих деревьев хеномелеса. В последнее время хеномелес находит все большее применение в декоративном садоводстве. Она не боится морозов, хорошо переносит засуху. Так что выращивание этого удивительного растения принесёт вам истинную радость. Весной вы сможете любоваться нежным цветением, осенью айва подарит вам свои плоды, которые не только весьма полезны для здоровья, но и на долгое время наполнят ваш дом чарующим ароматом любви.

[short_text] =>

Для любителей следовать советам китайской народной медицины заметки знатока растений и секретов китайского здоровья Павла Белоусова. Он предлагает посмотреть на грушу, айву и виноград глазами древних и современных китайцев.

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В Китае груша известна с незапамятных времен. Об этом свидетельствуют неоднократные упоминания о её деревьях в древнейшем памятнике китайской культуры «Каноне стихов» (XI—VI вв. до н. э.). Во многих стихотворениях этого канона присутствует сюжет одиноко растущего дерева груши, символизирующий одиночество и печаль.

Издавна особое место в китайской культуре занимают и белоснежные цветущие грушевые деревья. На протяжении веков их вид и благоухание вдохновляют поэтов и художников.

Вряд ли возможно перечислить все стихи китайских поэтов, посвящённые цветению груши. Часто на тему стихотворения одного поэта слагались собственные стихи. Большой популярностью, например, пользовалось стихотворение Ван Вэя (701—761 гг.) «Лепестки грушевых цветов у левых дворцовых ворот»:

Нехотя слетают
На траву у крыльца,
Ветерок относит
Их легко от дверей.
Жёлтой иволге любо
Шалить без конца —
С лепестком впорхнула
В палаты дворца.*

*Перевод А. А. Штейнберга.

Холодная их красота —
Точь-в-точь нетронутый снег.
Чуть слышимый аромат
В одежды мои проник.
А вешний ветр ни на миг
Не замедляет бег, —
Пригнал к нефриту крыльца,
Душистый сугроб воздвиг*

Цю Вэй (694—789 гг.)

Прелестно цветут
И улыбкой радуют взгляд.
Сдается: вот-вот
С мотыльками вспорхнут наравне.
Влетает порой
Вешний ветр сквозь двери палат —
Два-три лепестка
Опустились на платье ко мне*.

Хуанфу Жань (716—769 гг.)

Разумеется, утончённый обычай любования цветением грушевых деревьев сохранился и до наших дней. Ежегодно в апреле во многих регионах Китая проводятся чрезвычайно красочные мероприятия — так называемые «Праздники цветения груш», привлекающие не только местных жителей, но и туристов со всего мира.

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Увы, это великолепное зрелище можно созерцать лишь весной. Но всему своё время.

В августе созревают плоды груши. Каково же отношение китайцев к этим восхитительным фруктам?

Начнём с того, что традиционно в среде образованных китайцев обычай любования цветением грушевых деревьев ценился всё-таки неизмеримо выше, чем наслаждение вкусом её плодов. Может быть поэтому в ранних книгах по китайской медицине в основном говорится лишь о вреде груш.

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Приведём лишь несколько цитат из этих произведений.

В книге «Травоведение У Пу» (III в.) есть такая запись: «При колотых и резаных ранах, а также кормящим женщинам груши есть нельзя. Избыточное потребление повреждает организм. Не являются полезным продуктом. Употребление во время отдыха после родов, а также при болезни помешает выздоровлению. Употребление груш в большом количестве непременно приведет к болезни».

Отрицательное отношение к груше прослеживается и в книге «Расширенное значение травоведения» (1116 г.): «Избыточное потребление груш повреждает селезёнку... Весьма ценятся лишь пьяницами за способность устранять сильную жажду, но никак не способны изгнать болезнь».

В более поздних книгах появляются записи об эффективности употребления плодов груш при лечении некоторых заболеваний, причем чаще всего речь идет о лечении диабета.

Начнём с рецепта под названием «Напиток лечения диабета», который содержится в знаменитой книге «Рецепты всевозможной помощи» (1409 г.), составленной под руководством Чжу Су (1361—1425 гг.) — пятого сына императора Чжу Юаньчжана (1328—1398 гг.): «Взять груш таких сортов как сян-шуй-ли, э-ли или цзян-нань-сюэ-ли, выжать сок, проварить его с мёдом, разлить в бутылки. Время от времени принимать, растворяя в горячей или холодной воде. После выздоровления приём прекратить».

Подробнейшее описание показаний и противопоказаний к употреблению груш приводится в книге выдающегося китайского ученого и врача Ли Шичжэня (1518—1593 гг.) «Цитаты из книг по травоведению с комментариями» (1590 г.). Ссылаясь на источники времени правления династии Сун (960—1279 гг.), автор поведал о нескольких случаях чудодейственного действия плодов груши в борьбе с диабетом.

Вкратце опишем лишь два из них, опустив приведенные в оригинале имена действующих лиц и специфические термины китайской медицины.

Чиновник императорского двора, страдавший диабетом, был обследован придворным лекарем. Прогноз был неутешительным. Лекарь сообщил, что болезнь уже проникла глубоко в организм и не подлежит лечению, посоветовал поскорее возвращаться в родные края, дабы произвести приготовления к смерти. По пути домой чиновник встретил некоего конского ветеринара, который подтвердил диагноз придворного лекаря, однако посоветовал есть побольше груш. Если не получится жевать, тогда выжимать из них сок. Вернувшись в родные края, больной в течение десяти дней питался лишь грушами, после чего «вновь обрёл здоровье». Придворный лекарь, узнав о чудодейственном исцелении чиновника, был очень поражен способностями ветеринара, рекомендовал его ко двору, где тот впоследствии занял должность главного императорского конюшего.

Ещё один случай. Известный врач обследовал одного больного диабетом учёного человека и предрек ему смерть через три года. Учёный удалился с обследования в весьма безрадостном настроении. Позже он прослышал, что на горе Маошань есть некий даосский монах, который владеет «божественным искусством врачевания». Поскольку монах избегал общения с мирянами и не стремился к известности в среде образованных людей и сильных мира сего, учёный облачился в одежду слуги и отправился к нему в горы на поклон с просьбой принять на службу для выполнения хозяйственных работ. Монах оставил его среди учеников. Через некоторое время учёный поведал монаху о своей болезни. Тот осмотрел его, улыбнулся и сказал: «Спускайся с гор, но изо дня в день съедай по груше. Когда свежие груши закончатся, замачивай в кипятке сушёные, съедай гущу и выпивай сок. Болезнь сама собой пройдёт». Учёный последовал этому совету, а через год вновь посетил знаменитого врача, предрекавшего ему смерть. Увидев его цветущий вид, тот с изумлением сказал: «Вы, должно быть, встречались со святым, иначе в чём же причина столь поразительного исцеления?» Учёный рассказал все подробности. Тогда врач облачился в парадные одеяния и стал отбивать земные поклоны по направлению к горе Маошань, укоряя себя в недостаточности медицинских знаний.

Приведя эти рассказы, Ли Шичжэнь (1518—1593 гг.) делает следующий вывод: «Подобные примеры заставляют усомниться в том, что действие груш столь уж ничтожно, как об этом было сказано в древних медицинских книгах... У груши немало полезных качеств, однако не надо переедать, только и всего!»

В древних и современных книгах по традиционной китайской медицине о пользе и вреде груши сказано немало. Разумеется, понимание приведённого в этих книгах материала требует определенных познаний в области китайской медицины и философии, поэтому ограничимся лишь самыми общими рекомендациями, не углубляясь в тонкости древней науки.

Итак. Плоды груши настоятельно рекомендованы к употреблению при специфическом синдроме китайской медицины под названием «синдром жара». Этот синдром в основном характеризуется стремлением к прохладе, жаждой с предпочтением холодных напитков, сухостью во рту, покраснением лица, тёмно-красным цветом языка. По представлениям китайской медицины, к этому синдрому относятся и основные типы диабета.

В разумных количествах употребление возможно в период летнего зноя и при похмельном синдроме.

Отказаться от груш или хотя бы максимально ограничить их употребление следует при «синдроме холода», который обычно сопровождается ознобами, похолоданием конечностей, предпочтением горячих напитков, светлым цветом языка. Не рекомендуется употребление груш и в послеродовой период, а также после обильной кровопотери. В этих случаях, как правило, появляется синдром «недостатка крови» (бледность, головокружение, шум в ушах, сухость и шелушение кожи, светлый цвет ногтей и языка).

Особой популярностью в Китае издавна пользуется «грушевый сироп от кашля». Однако принимать его можно отнюдь не при всех разновидностях этого симптома. Этот сироп обычно назначается при кашле с отхаркиванием жёлтой вязкой трудно отделяемой мокроты, который относится к упомянутому выше «синдрому жара».

Категорически противопоказан такой сироп при кашле, сопровождающем «синдром холода», когда происходит отхаркивание обильной светлой жидкой мокроты.

Применяются груши и наружно — в свежем виде при ожогах.

Таковы основные рекомендации по употреблению груш с позиций традиционной китайской медицины.

В заключение нашего рассказа приведем немного статистики.

В настоящее время Китай является абсолютным мировым лидером производства груш. По данным Организации по продовольствию и сельскому хозяйству при ООН, в 2010 г. на его долю приходилось 67,3% мирового производства этой культуры. Далее в списке идут Италия (3,25%), США (3,24%), Аргентина (3,11%).

Показатели на душу населения у Китая также достаточно высоки, однако эта страна занимает лишь 7 место (11,4 кг), уступая Бельгии (25 кг), Аргентине (17,5 кг), Португалии (17%), Нидерландам (16,6 кг), Италии (12,3 кг) и Испании (11,7 кг).

Среди стран СНГ лидирует Беларусь — 0,32% мирового производства и 7,6 кг на душу населения.

У России показатели скромнее — 0,18% и 0,3 кг соответственно. Поэтому настоятельно рекомендуем вам посадить дерево груши на участке, если, разумеется, его еще нет.

ОТВЕДАТЬ В ШЕСТУЮ ЛУНУ...

В шестую луну отведать мы рады
Багряные сливы и гроздь винограда

(Шицзин: Книга песен и гимнов.)

В современных источниках указывается, что в приведённом стихотворении речь шла о винограде Тунберга (Vitus thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc.), имеющем мелкие ягоды тёмно-фиолетового цвета.

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В 1995 г. в ходе раскопок близ г. Жичжао в провинции Шаньдун китайско-американской группой археологов под руководством профессора Фан Хуэя было обнаружено более 200 гончарных изделий, а также косточки винограда. Экспертиза показала, что на внутренних стенках некоторых сосудов имеются следы вина и мёда, а сами сосуды были изготовлены 4600 лет назад. По мнению учёных, они были предназначены для хранения вина, приготовленного из дикого винограда с мёдом.

А вот культурный виноград проник в Китай лишь во II в. до н. э. Об этом свидетельствуют записи в древних источниках. Известно, что к I—II вв. н. э. широкого распространения здесь он так и не получил, а лишь некоторое время выращивался в садах императора и аристократов.

Тем не менее, культурный виноград очень высоко ценился за свои вкусовые и лечебные свойства. Особо ценилось виноградное вино. В ограниченных количествах оно завозилось из Средней Азии и было очень дорогим. В ряде древних исторических сочинений описан случай, когда при Восточной династии Хань (25—220 гг.) некий состоятельный человек получил высокую должность начальника округа после того как преподнес влиятельному евнуху 1 ху (приблизительно 100 литров) виноградного вина. Как указано в источнике, евнух «испытал от подношения великую радость».

С призывом заниматься виноградарством и виноделием обращался к подданным Цао Пи (187—226 гг.) — основатель династии Вэй Эпохи Троецарствия. Однако отклика в народе этот призыв так и не получил. Сказались политическая нестабильность, многочисленные разрушительные нашествия кочевников, связанные с этим миграция населения и недостаток сельскохозяйственных площадей, а также сложность агротехники винограда с невозможностью получения стабильных урожаев высокого качества. Кроме того, виноградное вино не могло составить конкуренцию традиционному китайскому вину из зерновых культур, так как его приготовление возможно лишь осенью, тогда как вино из зерна можно готовить в любое время года.

Ко времени правления династии Тан (618—907 гг.) в срединных районах Китая виноградарство было практически неизвестно. В книге «Новая книга южных областей» (XI в.) говорится: «Император Тай-цзун при разгроме Гаочана (древний город) добыл виноград сорта «кобылье молоко» (столовый виноград сорта хусайне («дамские пальчики»), который стал выращивать в императорском саду. Также завладел технологией виноделия... Приготовленное вино было зеленоватого цвета... Лишь тогда в Чанъане* узнали его вкус».

*Чанъань — древняя столица Китая. По мнению многих исследователей, в VII—IX вв. был самым крупным мегаполисом мира с населением 800 000—1 000 000 жителей. Ныне имеет название Сиань, является административным центром провинции Шэньси.

Постепенно начинается выращивание винограда в некоторых внутренних регионах Китая, хотя он так и не стал здесь важной сельскохозяйственной культурой.

Об ограниченности ареала распространения винограда в Китае сообщает венецианский торговец и путешественник Марко Поло (1254—1324 гг.). Вот что сказано об этом в его знаменитой «Книге о разнообразии мира»: «Весь почти народ в области Катай пьёт вот какое вино: приготовляют его из риса с другими хорошими пряностями, и питье выходит лучше всякого другого вина... Город Таян-фу, куда мы пришли, большой и красивый, торговля тут великая, а также промышленность... Много здесь отличных виноградников, и вина выделывается вдоволь; во всей области Катай одно это [виноградное] вино; из того города оно развозится по всей области».

Ко времени правления династии Мин (1368—1644 гг.) китайцам было известно несколько сортов винограда. Вот как, например, описал эти сорта известный учёный Сюй Гуанци (1562—1633 гг.): «„Хрустальный виноград“ имеет крупные овальные ягоды с беловатым налётом, сладкого вкуса. „Фиолетовый виноград“ — чёрного цвета, имеет две разновидности — крупный и мелкий, а также два вкуса — кислый и сладкий. „Зелёный виноград“ из Сычуани после созревания имеет зеленоватый цвет. А „зелёный виноград“ с Запада называется „заячий глаз“, он слаще сахара и мёда, без косточек, является поистине драгоценным продуктом. „Мелкий виноград“ с Запада имеет мелкие плоды размером с горошины чёрного перца. Виноград из Юньнани размером с унаби, имеет исключительно высокие вкусовые качества. Виноград, вывезенный из Персии, размером с куриное яйцо, его можно употреблять в свежем виде или готовить из него вино, а сушить его очень трудно».

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Испокон веков китайская медицина уделяет винограду особое внимание. В древнем классическом трактате «Канон травоведения Священного земледельца» он был описан первым среди продуктов высшего разряда в разделе «Фрукты и овощи», что указывало на его исключительные целебные качества.

Вот что сказано о винограде в этом произведении: «Лечит боль в суставах. Восполняет жизненную энергию Ци, удваивает силу, укрепляет волю. Позволяет человеку быть упитанным и здоровым, делает его устойчивым к голоду, способным противостоять простуде. Длительное потребление придаёт лёгкость телу, позволяет противодействовать старению, продлевает годы жизни».

В древних и современных руководствах по китайской медицине виноград рассматривается как один из основных продуктов питания, способствующих восполнению жизненной энергии Ци и крови. Его употребление в разумных количествах настоятельно рекомендуется при таких специфических синдромах китайской медицины как недостаток Ци и крови, недостаток Ци лёгких, недостаток Инь печени и почек. Также считается, что регулярное употребление винограда способствует усилению умственных способностей человека.

Особенно полезен виноград после болезней с ослаблением организма, детям, беременным женщинам и пожилым людям. Летом и осенью его рекомендуется употреблять в свежем виде, зимой и весной — в виде изюма или сока.

Беременным женщинам при повышенной двигательной активности плода китайскими врачами обычно предписывается употребление дважды в день компота, приготовленного из 30 г винограда или изюма.

По данным Организации по продовольствию и сельскому хозяйству при ООН, в 2010 г. Китай занял первое место в мире по валовому сбору винограда (12,7% мирового производства). Однако по показателям на душу населения он занимает лишь 50 место (6,5 кг). У России показатели скромнее — 0,47% и 2,3 кг соответственно.

Мировыми лидерами в производстве винограда на душу населения являются Чили (165 кг), Италия (134 кг), Испания (131 кг). В этих странах большая часть винограда перерабатывается в вино, в то время как в Китае преобладают столовые и кишмишно-изюмные сорта.

Следует отметить, что столовое вино западного типа не пользуется широкой популярностью в Китае. Здесь традиционно предпочитают сладкое виноградное вино, обычно с добавлением трав и пряностей, иногда полученное путем сбраживания с рисом.

В последнее время ситуация несколько меняется. Вина западного образца становятся модными и престижными среди обеспеченных слоев населения современного Китая. С помощью французских винодельческих компаний в ряде регионов Китая созданы винодельческие предприятия. Китайские виноделы пытаются продвигать свою продукцию на зарубежные рынки, однако в самом Китае сила традиций и вкусов все-таки очень сильна, поэтому ожидать широкого распространения культуры употребления виноградных вин западного типа здесь едва ли возможно.

Основным местом производства винограда в Китае является Турфанский оазис в Синьцзян-Уйгурском автономном районе. Здесь производится 75% изюма в стране. Турфанский виноград имеет очень высокие вкусовые и товарные качества, а изготовленный из него изюм по праву может считаться лучшим в мире.

Осенью в городе Турфан проходит ежегодный праздник винограда «Шёлковый путь». Это необычайно красочное зрелище привлекает туристов со всего мира и является одним из важнейших культурных событий года в регионе.

На улицах города проходят фольклорные представления и концерты, свадебные церемонии в традициях уйгуров, театрализованные представления, шествия караванов верблюдов, экскурсии по особой «виноградной аллее», на которой туристы могут сами срывать свежий виноград.

По данным оргкомитета мероприятия, в 2012 году на праздник винограда в Турфан прибыло более 2000 туристических групп.

ХЕНОМЕЛЕС ПРЕКРАСНАЯ

Мне ты в подарок принёс плод айвы ароматный,
Яшмой прекрасною был мой подарок обратный.
Не для того я дарила, чтоб нам обменяться дарами,
А для того, чтобы вечной осталась любовь между нами.

Шицзин: Книга песен и гимнов

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Сегодня мы поговорим о растении, которое испокон веков пользовалось особой популярностью в Китае. Его ботаническое название — хеномелес прекрасная (Chaenomeles speciosa). Такое название было дано ему европейскими ботаниками в конце XVIII в. Хеномелес — кустовое растение, обычно с колючими ветками и плодами небольшого размера, по виду напоминающими айву. Видимо поэтому оно больше известно у нас как «японская айва».

В отличие от европейцев, китайцы нашли в нем сходство не с айвой, а с маленькой дыней, растущей на небольшом деревце. Перевод китайского названия хеномелес — «древесная дыня» (му-гуа). Известно, что Китай – родина этого растения. Первое упоминание о нём встречается в древнейшем памятнике китайской культуры «Каноне стихов» (XI—VI вв. до н. э.):

Хеномелес — поистине удивительное растение. Удивительно в нем всё — и восхитительные цветки, распускающиеся ранней весной, и целебные свойства плодов, и неповторимый нежный аромат.

Начнём с аромата. Собранные и даже высушенные плоды хеномелеса очень долго сохраняют свой тонкий аромат. Именно поэтому китайцы издавна используют их для ароматизации своих жилищ. В Древнем Китае существовал обычай расставлять блюда с плодами хеномелеса в жилых комнатах, чаще всего в спальных покоях супругов. Считалось, что благоухание этих плодов возбуждает любовное влечение.

В популярном романе «Сон в красном тереме» (XVIII в.) описывается, как один из главных героев романа по имени Цзя Баоюй очутился в спальне красавицы Цинь Кэцин. На столике он увидел золотое блюдо с крупным плодом хеномелеса. «У Баоюя в носу сразу защекотало от какого-то едва уловимого аромата, глаза стали слипаться, он почувствовал во всем теле сладостную истому...» Баоюй погрузился в сон, в котором он общался с небесными феями из сказочного мира Великой пустоты и с волшебным образом самой хозяйки комнаты...

Из высушенных плодов также готовили пудру, которую женщины наносили на лицо и тело.

Нередко плоды хеномелеса раскладывали в сундуках с одеждой и в книжных шкафах. Со временем одежда и книги пропитывались восхитительным ароматом, что не только свидетельствовало об особой утончённости нравов их обладателей, но и предохраняло вещи от моли.

А вот для борьбы с клопами мелко нарезанные плоды хеномелес обычно раскладывали под спальными циновками.

О целебных свойствах плодов хеномелеса в Китае известно очень давно. В народе его издавна называют «плодом вечного долголетия», «царём плодов с сотней полезных свойств».

Известный комментатор древних текстов Лу Дянь (1042—1102 гг.) некогда писал: «Люди говорят, что плод груши обладает сотней вредных и лишь одним полезным свойствами, а плод хеномелеса — сотней полезных и одним вредным».

Знаменитый ученый и врач Тао Хунцзин (456—536 гг.) писал следующее: «Хеномелес особо эффективен в лечении спазма мышц конечностей. При появлении спазма можно просто произносить его название или написать иероглифы «му-гуа» (древесная дыня) на бумаге. Болезнь пройдёт. Объяснения этому явлению нет. В народе также говорят, что ходьба с посохом, изготовленным из древесины хеномелеса, укрепляет сухожилия».

В одной из древних медицинских книг описан следующий случай. Некий человек страдал бери-бери (авитаминоз) с отёками, судорогами и болью в ногах. Однажды, путешествуя по реке на лодке, он поставил ноги на какой-то мешок. Постепенно боль в ногах утихла. Тогда он спросил у лодочника, чем же наполнен мешок. Лодочник ответил, что в мешке плоды хеномелеса. Вернувшись домой, больной взял мешок и наполнил его нарезанными плодами, регулярно топтался по нему ногами и вскоре полностью избавился от своей болезни.

В знаменитой книге «Собрание чудодейственных рецептов Великого спокойствия» (992 г.) сухие и блёклые волосы рекомендуется расчёсывать гребнем с нанесённым на него растительным маслом, настоянном на измельчённых плодах хеномелеса.

В современных руководствах по китайской медицине плод хеномелес отнесён к группе лекарств, основным действием которых является устранение артритов. Среди показаний к применению также указываются спазмы икроножных мышц, бери-бери, отёк и слабость ног, острая рвота и понос.

Из-за кислого вкуса, грубой кожицы и твёрдой мякоти плоды айвы японской в свежем виде практически не употребляют.

В настоящее время в китайской медицине в основном используются слегка отваренные, а затем высушенные на солнце дольки плодов хеномелеса. Вместе с другими лекарствами их вводят в отвары.

В древности способы обработки были несколько иными. Вот что говорится, например, в одной медицинской книге V в.: «При обработке этих плодов нельзя пользоваться железной утварью. Следует срезать медным ножом жёсткую кожуру, удалить семена, нарезать плоды на кусочки и высушить их на солнце. Затем смешать их с молоком жёлтой коровы и варить на пару от части суток Сы (09:00—11:00) до части суток Вэй (13:00—15:00) — до пастообразного состояния, после чего вновь высушить на солнце».

Знаменитый врач Ли Шичжэнь (1518—1593 гг.) предложил свой способ обработки плодов хеномелеса: «Удалить семена, сварить на пару до размягчения, растолочь, добавить мёд и свежий имбирь, вскипятить. Особенно прекрасно принимать это целебное лакомство в зимние месяцы».

Из плодов хеномелеса также готовят медовые цукаты, варенье, настойки, ароматную муку.

Утончённый обычай любования цветением плодовых деревьев — неотъемлемая часть китайской культуры. Не оставляет равнодушными китайцев и вид цветущих деревьев хеномелеса. В последнее время хеномелес находит все большее применение в декоративном садоводстве. Она не боится морозов, хорошо переносит засуху. Так что выращивание этого удивительного растения принесёт вам истинную радость. Весной вы сможете любоваться нежным цветением, осенью айва подарит вам свои плоды, которые не только весьма полезны для здоровья, но и на долгое время наполнят ваш дом чарующим ароматом любви.

[short_text] =>

Для любителей следовать советам китайской народной медицины заметки знатока растений и секретов китайского здоровья Павла Белоусова. Он предлагает посмотреть на грушу, айву и виноград глазами древних и современных китайцев.

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[_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => ) [request] => yii\web\Request Object ( [enableCsrfValidation] => 1 [csrfParam] => _csrf [csrfCookie] => Array ( [httpOnly] => 1 ) [enableCookieValidation] => 1 [cookieValidationKey] => -jv4-kFZIUxCCwry2mT7AVDIhvt43o8q [methodParam] => _method [parsers] => Array ( ) [_cookies:yii\web\Request:private] => [_headers:yii\web\Request:private] => [_rawBody:yii\web\Request:private] => [_bodyParams:yii\web\Request:private] => [_queryParams:yii\web\Request:private] => [_hostInfo:yii\web\Request:private] => [_baseUrl:yii\web\Request:private] => [_scriptUrl:yii\web\Request:private] => /index.php [_scriptFile:yii\web\Request:private] => [_pathInfo:yii\web\Request:private] => plant_growing/encyclopaedia/pavel-belousov-kitaeved-alma-ata-grusha-u-levyh-dvorcovyh-vorot.html [_url:yii\web\Request:private] => /plant_growing/encyclopaedia/pavel-belousov-kitaeved-alma-ata-grusha-u-levyh-dvorcovyh-vorot.html [_port:yii\web\Request:private] => [_securePort:yii\web\Request:private] => [_contentTypes:yii\web\Request:private] => [_languages:yii\web\Request:private] => [_csrfCookie:yii\web\Request:private] => [_csrfToken:yii\web\Request:private] => [_isConsoleRequest:yii\base\Request:private] => [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => [_scriptFile:yii\base\Request:private] => ) [cache] => yii\caching\FileCache Object ( [keyPrefix] => [cachePath] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/frontend/runtime/cache [cacheFileSuffix] => .bin [directoryLevel] => 1 [gcProbability] => 10 [fileMode] => [dirMode] => 509 [serializer] => [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => ) [urlManager] => yii\web\UrlManager Object ( [enablePrettyUrl] => 1 [enableStrictParsing] => 1 [rules] => Array ( [0] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => [pattern] => #^$#u [host] => [route] => site/index [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => [verb] => [mode] => [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) ) [1] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => user/ [pattern] => #^user/(?P(login|logout|request-password-reset|signup))$#u [host] => [route] => user/ [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => [verb] => [mode] => [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => /user// [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => #^user/(?P(login|logout|request-password-reset|signup))$#u [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [action] => ) ) [2] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => user/reset-password/ [pattern] => #^user/reset-password/(?P[^\/]+)$#u [host] => [route] => user/reset-password [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => [verb] => [mode] => [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => /user/reset-password// [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [token] => ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) ) [3] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => user/activation/ [pattern] => #^user/activation/(?P[^\/]+)$#u [host] => [route] => user/activation [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => [verb] => [mode] => [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => /user/activation// [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [activkey] => ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) ) [4] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => user/addpage [pattern] => #^user/addpage$#u [host] => [route] => page/addpage [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => [verb] => [mode] => [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => /user/addpage/ [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) ) [5] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => user/ [pattern] => #^user/(?P[^\/]+)$#u [host] => [route] => user/index [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => [verb] => [mode] => [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => /user// [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [username] => ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) ) [6] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => user//edit [pattern] => #^user/(?P[^\/]+)/edit$#u [host] => [route] => user/edit [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => [verb] => [mode] => [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => /user//edit/ [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [username] => ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) ) [7] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => <_m:[\w\-]+> [pattern] => #^(?P<_m>[\w\-]+)$#u [host] => [route] => <_m>/create [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => [verb] => Array ( [0] => POST ) [mode] => 1 [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => /<_m>/ [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => #^(?P<_m>[\w\-]+)/create$#u [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [_m] => <_m> ) ) [8] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => <_m:[\w\-]+>/ [pattern] => #^(?P<_m>[\w\-]+)/(?P\d+)$#u [host] => [route] => <_m>/update [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => [verb] => Array ( [0] => POST ) [mode] => 1 [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => /<_m>// [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => #^(?P<_m>[\w\-]+)/update$#u [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [id] => #^\d+$# ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [_m] => <_m> ) ) [9] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => <_m:[\w\-]+>/ [pattern] => #^(?P<_m>[\w\-]+)/(?P\d+)$#u [host] => [route] => <_m>/delete [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => [verb] => Array ( [0] => DELETE ) [mode] => 1 [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => /<_m>// [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => #^(?P<_m>[\w\-]+)/delete$#u [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [id] => #^\d+$# ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [_m] => <_m> ) ) [10] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => // [pattern] => #^(?P[^\/]+)/(?P[^\/]+)/(?P[^\/]+)$#u [host] => [route] => page/page [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => .html [verb] => [mode] => [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => //// [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [cat] => [subcat] => [alias] => ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) ) [11] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => / [pattern] => #^(?P[^\/]+)/(?P[^\/]+)$#u [host] => [route] => page/page [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => .html [verb] => [mode] => [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => /// [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [cat] => [alias] => ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) ) [12] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => [pattern] => #^(?P[^\/]+)$#u [host] => [route] => page/page [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => .html [verb] => [mode] => [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => // [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [alias] => ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) ) [13] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => // [pattern] => #^(?P[^\/]+)/(?P[^\/]+)/(?P[^\/]+)$#u [host] => [route] => page/page [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => .php [verb] => [mode] => [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => //// [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [cat] => [subcat] => [alias] => ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) ) [14] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => / [pattern] => #^(?P[^\/]+)/(?P[^\/]+)$#u [host] => [route] => page/page [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => .php [verb] => [mode] => [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => /// [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [cat] => [alias] => ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) ) [15] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => [pattern] => #^(?P[^\/]+)$#u [host] => [route] => page/page [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => .php [verb] => [mode] => [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => // [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [alias] => ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) ) [16] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => / [pattern] => #^(?P[^\/]+)/(?P[^\/]+)$#u [host] => [route] => page/category [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => / [verb] => [mode] => [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => /// [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [cat] => [subcat] => ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) ) [17] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => [pattern] => #^(?P[^\/]+)$#u [host] => [route] => page/category [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => / [verb] => [mode] => [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => // [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [cat] => ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) ) [18] => yii\web\UrlRule Object ( [name] => / [pattern] => #^(?P\w+)/(?P\w+)$#u [host] => [route] => / [defaults] => Array ( ) [suffix] => [verb] => [mode] => [encodeParams] => 1 [_template:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => /// [_routeRule:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => #^(?P\w+)/(?P\w+)$#u [_paramRules:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( ) [_routeParams:yii\web\UrlRule:private] => Array ( [controller] => [action] => ) ) ) [suffix] => [showScriptName] => [routeParam] => r [cache] => yii\caching\FileCache Object ( [keyPrefix] => [cachePath] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/frontend/runtime/cache [cacheFileSuffix] => .bin [directoryLevel] => 1 [gcProbability] => 10 [fileMode] => [dirMode] => 509 [serializer] => [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => ) [ruleConfig] => Array ( [class] => yii\web\UrlRule ) [_baseUrl:yii\web\UrlManager:private] => [_scriptUrl:yii\web\UrlManager:private] => [_hostInfo:yii\web\UrlManager:private] => [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => ) [user] => yii\web\User Object ( [identityClass] => common\models\User [enableAutoLogin] => 1 [enableSession] => 1 [loginUrl] => Array ( [0] => site/login ) [identityCookie] => Array ( [name] => _identity [httpOnly] => 1 ) [authTimeout] => [absoluteAuthTimeout] => [autoRenewCookie] => 1 [idParam] => __id [authTimeoutParam] => __expire [absoluteAuthTimeoutParam] => __absolute_expire [returnUrlParam] => __returnUrl [_access:yii\web\User:private] => Array ( ) [_identity:yii\web\User:private] => [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => ) [db] => yii\db\Connection Object ( [dsn] => mysql:host=localhost;dbname=vc [username] => vc [password] => vestnik [attributes] => [pdo] => PDO Object ( ) [enableSchemaCache] => [schemaCacheDuration] => 3600 [schemaCacheExclude] => Array ( ) [schemaCache] => cache [enableQueryCache] => 1 [queryCacheDuration] => 3600 [queryCache] => cache [charset] => utf8 [emulatePrepare] => [tablePrefix] => [schemaMap] => Array ( [pgsql] => yii\db\pgsql\Schema [mysqli] => yii\db\mysql\Schema [mysql] => yii\db\mysql\Schema [sqlite] => yii\db\sqlite\Schema [sqlite2] => yii\db\sqlite\Schema [sqlsrv] => yii\db\mssql\Schema [oci] => yii\db\oci\Schema [mssql] => yii\db\mssql\Schema [dblib] => yii\db\mssql\Schema [cubrid] => yii\db\cubrid\Schema ) [pdoClass] => [enableSavepoint] => 1 [serverStatusCache] => cache [serverRetryInterval] => 600 [enableSlaves] => 1 [slaves] => Array ( ) [slaveConfig] => Array ( ) [masters] => Array ( ) [masterConfig] => Array ( ) [_transaction:yii\db\Connection:private] => [_schema:yii\db\Connection:private] => yii\db\mysql\Schema Object ( [typeMap] => Array ( [tinyint] => smallint [bit] => integer [smallint] => smallint [mediumint] => integer [int] => integer [integer] => integer [bigint] => bigint [float] => float [double] => float [real] => float [decimal] => decimal [numeric] => decimal [tinytext] => text [mediumtext] => text [longtext] => text [longblob] => binary [blob] => binary [text] => text [varchar] => string [string] => string [char] => string [datetime] => datetime [year] => date [date] => date [time] => time [timestamp] => timestamp [enum] => string ) [db] => yii\db\Connection Object *RECURSION* [defaultSchema] => [exceptionMap] => Array ( [SQLSTATE[23] => yii\db\IntegrityException ) [_tableNames:yii\db\Schema:private] => Array ( ) [_tables:yii\db\Schema:private] => Array ( [tbl_pages] => yii\db\TableSchema Object ( [schemaName] => [name] => tbl_pages [fullName] => tbl_pages [primaryKey] => Array ( [0] => id ) [sequenceName] => [foreignKeys] => Array ( ) [columns] => Array ( [id] => yii\db\ColumnSchema Object ( [name] => id [allowNull] => [type] => bigint [phpType] => string [dbType] => bigint(20) unsigned [defaultValue] => [enumValues] => [size] => 20 [precision] => 20 [scale] => [isPrimaryKey] => 1 [autoIncrement] => 1 [unsigned] => 1 [comment] => ) [title] => yii\db\ColumnSchema Object ( [name] => title [allowNull] => [type] => string [phpType] => string [dbType] => varchar(255) [defaultValue] => [enumValues] => [size] => 255 [precision] => 255 [scale] => [isPrimaryKey] => [autoIncrement] => [unsigned] => [comment] => ) [alias] => yii\db\ColumnSchema Object ( [name] => alias [allowNull] => [type] => string [phpType] => string [dbType] => varchar(255) [defaultValue] => [enumValues] => [size] => 255 [precision] => 255 [scale] => [isPrimaryKey] => [autoIncrement] => [unsigned] => [comment] => ) [content] => yii\db\ColumnSchema Object ( [name] => content [allowNull] => 1 [type] => text [phpType] => string [dbType] => longtext [defaultValue] => [enumValues] => [size] => [precision] => [scale] => [isPrimaryKey] => [autoIncrement] => [unsigned] => [comment] => ) [short_text] => yii\db\ColumnSchema Object ( [name] => short_text [allowNull] => 1 [type] => text [phpType] => string [dbType] => text [defaultValue] => [enumValues] => [size] => [precision] => [scale] => [isPrimaryKey] => [autoIncrement] => [unsigned] => [comment] => ) [keywords] => yii\db\ColumnSchema Object ( [name] => keywords [allowNull] => 1 [type] => text [phpType] => string [dbType] => text [defaultValue] => [enumValues] => [size] => [precision] => [scale] => [isPrimaryKey] => [autoIncrement] => [unsigned] => [comment] => ) [description] => yii\db\ColumnSchema Object ( [name] => description [allowNull] => 1 [type] => text [phpType] => string [dbType] => text [defaultValue] => [enumValues] => [size] => [precision] => [scale] => [isPrimaryKey] => [autoIncrement] => [unsigned] => [comment] => ) [created] => yii\db\ColumnSchema Object ( [name] => created [allowNull] => [type] => integer [phpType] => integer [dbType] => int(11) [defaultValue] => [enumValues] => [size] => 11 [precision] => 11 [scale] => [isPrimaryKey] => [autoIncrement] => [unsigned] => [comment] => ) [updated] => yii\db\ColumnSchema Object ( [name] => updated [allowNull] => [type] => integer [phpType] => integer [dbType] => int(11) [defaultValue] => [enumValues] => [size] => 11 [precision] => 11 [scale] => [isPrimaryKey] => [autoIncrement] => [unsigned] => [comment] => ) [userId] => yii\db\ColumnSchema Object ( [name] => userId [allowNull] => 1 [type] => bigint [phpType] => string [dbType] => bigint(20) unsigned [defaultValue] => [enumValues] => [size] => 20 [precision] => 20 [scale] => [isPrimaryKey] => [autoIncrement] => [unsigned] => 1 [comment] => ) [authorName] => yii\db\ColumnSchema Object ( [name] => authorName [allowNull] => 1 [type] => string [phpType] => string [dbType] => varchar(255) [defaultValue] => [enumValues] => [size] => 255 [precision] => 255 [scale] => [isPrimaryKey] => [autoIncrement] => [unsigned] => [comment] => ) [category] => yii\db\ColumnSchema Object ( [name] => category [allowNull] => [type] => integer [phpType] => integer [dbType] => int(10) [defaultValue] => 0 [enumValues] => [size] => 10 [precision] => 10 [scale] => [isPrimaryKey] => [autoIncrement] => [unsigned] => [comment] => ) [fixed] => yii\db\ColumnSchema Object ( [name] => fixed [allowNull] => 1 [type] => integer [phpType] => integer [dbType] => int(1) [defaultValue] => 0 [enumValues] => [size] => 1 [precision] => 1 [scale] => [isPrimaryKey] => [autoIncrement] => [unsigned] => [comment] => ) [views] => yii\db\ColumnSchema Object ( [name] => views [allowNull] => [type] => integer [phpType] => integer [dbType] => int(11) [defaultValue] => 0 [enumValues] => [size] => 11 [precision] => 11 [scale] => [isPrimaryKey] => [autoIncrement] => [unsigned] => [comment] => ) [tags] => yii\db\ColumnSchema Object ( [name] => tags [allowNull] => 1 [type] => text [phpType] => string [dbType] => text [defaultValue] => [enumValues] => [size] => [precision] => [scale] => [isPrimaryKey] => [autoIncrement] => [unsigned] => [comment] => ) [glav_img] => yii\db\ColumnSchema Object ( [name] => glav_img [allowNull] => 1 [type] => text [phpType] => string [dbType] => text [defaultValue] => [enumValues] => [size] => [precision] => [scale] => [isPrimaryKey] => [autoIncrement] => [unsigned] => [comment] => ) [status] => yii\db\ColumnSchema Object ( [name] => status [allowNull] => [type] => smallint [phpType] => integer [dbType] => tinyint(1) [defaultValue] => 0 [enumValues] => [size] => 1 [precision] => 1 [scale] => [isPrimaryKey] => [autoIncrement] => [unsigned] => [comment] => ) ) ) ) [_builder:yii\db\Schema:private] => yii\db\mysql\QueryBuilder Object ( [typeMap] => Array ( [pk] => int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY [bigpk] => bigint(20) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY [string] => varchar(255) [text] => text [smallint] => smallint(6) [integer] => int(11) [bigint] => bigint(20) [float] => float [decimal] => decimal(10,0) [datetime] => datetime [timestamp] => timestamp [time] => time [date] => date [binary] => blob [boolean] => tinyint(1) [money] => decimal(19,4) ) [db] => yii\db\Connection Object *RECURSION* [separator] => [conditionBuilders:protected] => Array ( [NOT] => buildNotCondition [AND] => buildAndCondition [OR] => buildAndCondition [BETWEEN] => buildBetweenCondition [NOT BETWEEN] => buildBetweenCondition [IN] => buildInCondition [NOT IN] => buildInCondition [LIKE] => buildLikeCondition [NOT LIKE] => buildLikeCondition [OR LIKE] => buildLikeCondition [OR NOT LIKE] => buildLikeCondition [EXISTS] => buildExistsCondition [NOT EXISTS] => buildExistsCondition ) ) ) [_driverName:yii\db\Connection:private] => mysql [_slave:yii\db\Connection:private] => [_queryCacheInfo:yii\db\Connection:private] => Array ( ) [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) ) [view] => yii\web\View Object ( [assetBundles] => Array ( ) [title] => Павел БЕЛОУСОВ, китаевед, Алма-Ата ГРУША У ЛЕВЫХ ДВОРЦОВЫХ ВОРОТ [metaTags] => Array ( [meta-description] => [meta-keywords] => ) [linkTags] => [css] => [cssFiles] => [js] => [jsFiles] => [_assetManager:yii\web\View:private] => [context] => frontend\controllers\PageController Object *RECURSION* [params] => Array ( [breadcrumbs] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [label] => Растения и уход за ними [url] => Array ( [0] => page/category [cat] => plant_growing ) ) [1] => Array ( [label] => Энциклопедия растений [url] => Array ( [0] => page/category [cat] => plant_growing [subcat] => encyclopaedia ) ) [2] => Павел БЕЛОУСОВ, китаевед, Алма-Ата ГРУША У ЛЕВЫХ ДВОРЦОВЫХ ВОРОТ ) ) [renderers] => [defaultExtension] => php [theme] => [blocks] => [cacheStack] => Array ( ) [dynamicPlaceholders] => Array ( ) [_viewFiles:yii\base\View:private] => Array ( [0] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/frontend/views/page/page.php ) [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) ) [response] => yii\web\Response Object ( [format] => html [acceptMimeType] => [acceptParams] => Array ( ) [formatters] => Array ( [html] => yii\web\HtmlResponseFormatter [xml] => yii\web\XmlResponseFormatter [json] => yii\web\JsonResponseFormatter [jsonp] => Array ( [class] => yii\web\JsonResponseFormatter [useJsonp] => 1 ) ) [data] => [content] => [stream] => [charset] => UTF-8 [statusText] => OK [version] => 1.0 [isSent] => [_statusCode:yii\web\Response:private] => 200 [_headers:yii\web\Response:private] => [_cookies:yii\web\Response:private] => [exitStatus] => 0 [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => ) [i18n] => yii\i18n\I18N Object ( [translations] => Array ( [eauth] => Array ( [class] => yii\i18n\PhpMessageSource [basePath] => @eauth/messages ) [yii] => yii\i18n\PhpMessageSource Object ( [basePath] => @yii/messages [fileMap] => [forceTranslation] => [sourceLanguage] => en-US [_messages:yii\i18n\MessageSource:private] => Array ( [ru-RU/yii] => Array ( [Only files with these MIME types are allowed: {mimeTypes}.] => Разрешена загрузка файлов только со следующими MIME-типами: {mimeTypes}. [The requested view "{name}" was not found.] => Запрашиваемый файл представления "{name}" не найден. [in {delta, plural, =1{a day} other{# days}}] => через {delta, plural, =1{день} one{# день} few{# дня} many{# дней} other{# дня}} [in {delta, plural, =1{a minute} other{# minutes}}] => через {delta, plural, =1{минуту} one{# минуту} few{# минуты} many{# минут} other{# минуты}} [in {delta, plural, =1{a month} other{# months}}] => через {delta, plural, =1{месяц} one{# месяц} few{# месяца} many{# месяцев} other{# месяца}} [in {delta, plural, =1{a second} other{# seconds}}] => через {delta, plural, =1{секунду} one{# секунду} few{# секунды} many{# секунд} other{# секунды}} [in {delta, plural, =1{a year} other{# years}}] => через {delta, plural, =1{год} one{# год} few{# года} many{# лет} other{# года}} [in {delta, plural, =1{an hour} other{# hours}}] => через {delta, plural, =1{час} one{# час} few{# часа} many{# часов} other{# часа}} [{delta, plural, =1{a day} other{# days}} ago] => {delta, plural, =1{день} one{день} few{# дня} many{# дней} other{# дня}} назад [{delta, plural, =1{a minute} other{# minutes}} ago] => {delta, plural, =1{минуту} one{# минуту} few{# минуты} many{# минут} other{# минуты}} назад [{delta, plural, =1{a month} other{# months}} ago] => {delta, plural, =1{месяц} one{# месяц} few{# месяца} many{# месяцев} other{# месяца}} назад [{delta, plural, =1{a second} other{# seconds}} ago] => {delta, plural, =1{секунду} one{# секунду} few{# секунды} many{# секунд} other{# секунды}} назад [{delta, plural, =1{a year} other{# years}} ago] => {delta, plural, =1{год} one{# год} few{# года} many{# лет} other{# года}} назад [{delta, plural, =1{an hour} other{# hours}} ago] => {delta, plural, =1{час} one{# час} few{# часа} many{# часов} other{# часа}} назад [{n, plural, =1{# byte} other{# bytes}}] => {n, plural, one{# байт} few{# байта} many{# байтов} other{# байта}} [{n, plural, =1{# gigabyte} other{# gigabytes}}] => {n, plural, one{# гигабайт} few{# гигабайта} many{# гигабайтов} other{# гигабайта}} [{n, plural, =1{# kilobyte} other{# kilobytes}}] => {n, plural, one{# килобайт} few{# килобайта} many{# килобайтов} other{# килобайта}} [{n, plural, =1{# megabyte} other{# megabytes}}] => {n, plural, one{# мегабайт} few{# мегабайта} many{# мегабайтов} other{# мегабайта}} [{n, plural, =1{# petabyte} other{# petabytes}}] => {n, plural, one{# петабайт} few{# петабайта} many{# петабайтов} other{# петабайта}} [{n, plural, =1{# terabyte} other{# terabytes}}] => {n, plural, one{# терабайт} few{# терабайта} many{# терабайтов} other{# терабайта}} [{n} B] => {n} Б [{n} GB] => {n} ГБ [{n} KB] => {n} КБ [{n} MB] => {n} МБ [{n} PB] => {n} ПБ [{n} TB] => {n} ТБ [(not set)] => (не задано) [An internal server error occurred.] => Возникла внутренняя ошибка сервера. [Are you sure you want to delete this item?] => Вы уверены, что хотите удалить этот элемент? [Delete] => Удалить [Error] => Ошибка [File upload failed.] => Загрузка файла не удалась. [Home] => Главная [Invalid data received for parameter "{param}".] => Неправильное значение параметра "{param}". [Login Required] => Требуется вход. [Missing required arguments: {params}] => Отсутствуют обязательные аргументы: {params} [Missing required parameters: {params}] => Отсутствуют обязательные параметры: {params} [No] => Нет [No help for unknown command "{command}".] => Справка недоступна для неизвестной команды "{command}". [No help for unknown sub-command "{command}".] => Справка недоступна для неизвестной субкоманды "{command}". [No results found.] => Ничего не найдено. [Only files with these extensions are allowed: {extensions}.] => Разрешена загрузка файлов только со следующими расширениями: {extensions}. [Page not found.] => Страница не найдена. [Please fix the following errors:] => Исправьте следующие ошибки: [Please upload a file.] => Загрузите файл. [Showing {begin, number}-{end, number} of {totalCount, number} {totalCount, plural, one{item} other{items}}.] => Показаны записи {begin, number}-{end, number} из {totalCount, number}. [The file "{file}" is not an image.] => Файл «{file}» не является изображением. [The file "{file}" is too big. Its size cannot exceed {limit, number} {limit, plural, one{byte} other{bytes}}.] => Файл «{file}» слишком большой. Размер не должен превышать {limit, number} {limit, plural, one{байт} few{байта} many{байт} other{байта}}. [The file "{file}" is too small. Its size cannot be smaller than {limit, number} {limit, plural, one{byte} other{bytes}}.] => Файл «{file}» слишком маленький. Размер должен быть более {limit, number} {limit, plural, one{байт} few{байта} many{байт} other{байта}}. [The format of {attribute} is invalid.] => Неверный формат значения «{attribute}». [The image "{file}" is too large. The height cannot be larger than {limit, number} {limit, plural, one{pixel} other{pixels}}.] => Файл «{file}» слишком большой. Высота не должна превышать {limit, number} {limit, plural, one{пиксель} few{пикселя} many{пикселей} other{пикселя}}. [The image "{file}" is too large. The width cannot be larger than {limit, number} {limit, plural, one{pixel} other{pixels}}.] => Файл «{file}» слишком большой. Ширина не должна превышать {limit, number} {limit, plural, one{пиксель} few{пикселя} many{пикселей} other{пикселя}}. [The image "{file}" is too small. The height cannot be smaller than {limit, number} {limit, plural, one{pixel} other{pixels}}.] => Файл «{file}» слишком маленький. Высота должна быть более {limit, number} {limit, plural, one{пиксель} few{пикселя} many{пикселей} other{пикселя}}. [The image "{file}" is too small. The width cannot be smaller than {limit, number} {limit, plural, one{pixel} other{pixels}}.] => Файл «{file}» слишком маленький. Ширина должна быть более {limit, number} {limit, plural, one{пиксель} few{пикселя} many{пикселей} other{пикселя}}. [The verification code is incorrect.] => Неправильный проверочный код. [Total {count, number} {count, plural, one{item} other{items}}.] => Всего {count, number} {count, plural, one{запись} few{записи} many{записей} other{записи}}. [Unable to verify your data submission.] => Не удалось проверить переданные данные. [Unknown command "{command}".] => Неизвестная команда "{command}". [Unknown option: --{name}] => Неизвестная опция: --{name} [Update] => Редактировать [View] => Просмотр [Yes] => Да [You are not allowed to perform this action.] => Вам не разрешено производить данное действие. [You can upload at most {limit, number} {limit, plural, one{file} other{files}}.] => Вы не можете загружать более {limit, number} {limit, plural, one{файла} few{файлов} many{файлов} other{файла}}. [the input value] => введённое значение [{attribute} "{value}" has already been taken.] => {attribute} «{value}» уже занят. [{attribute} cannot be blank.] => Необходимо заполнить «{attribute}». [{attribute} is invalid.] => Значение «{attribute}» неверно. [{attribute} is not a valid URL.] => Значение «{attribute}» не является правильным URL. [{attribute} is not a valid email address.] => Значение «{attribute}» не является правильным email адресом. [{attribute} must be "{requiredValue}".] => Значение «{attribute}» должно быть равно «{requiredValue}». [{attribute} must be a number.] => Значение «{attribute}» должно быть числом. [{attribute} must be a string.] => Значение «{attribute}» должно быть строкой. [{attribute} must be an integer.] => Значение «{attribute}» должно быть целым числом. [{attribute} must be either "{true}" or "{false}".] => Значение «{attribute}» должно быть равно «{true}» или «{false}». [{attribute} must be greater than "{compareValue}".] => Значение «{attribute}» должно быть больше значения «{compareValue}». [{attribute} must be greater than or equal to "{compareValue}".] => Значение «{attribute}» должно быть больше или равно значения «{compareValue}». [{attribute} must be less than "{compareValue}".] => Значение «{attribute}» должно быть меньше значения «{compareValue}». [{attribute} must be less than or equal to "{compareValue}".] => Значение «{attribute}» должно быть меньше или равно значения «{compareValue}». [{attribute} must be no greater than {max}.] => Значение «{attribute}» не должно превышать {max}. [{attribute} must be no less than {min}.] => Значение «{attribute}» должно быть не меньше {min}. [{attribute} must be repeated exactly.] => Значение «{attribute}» должно быть повторено в точности. [{attribute} must not be equal to "{compareValue}".] => Значение «{attribute}» не должно быть равно «{compareValue}». [{attribute} should contain at least {min, number} {min, plural, one{character} other{characters}}.] => Значение «{attribute}» должно содержать минимум {min, number} {min, plural, one{символ} few{символа} many{символов} other{символа}}. [{attribute} should contain at most {max, number} {max, plural, one{character} other{characters}}.] => Значение «{attribute}» должно содержать максимум {max, number} {max, plural, one{символ} few{символа} many{символов} other{символа}}. 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В Китае груша известна с незапамятных времен. Об этом свидетельствуют неоднократные упоминания о её деревьях в древнейшем памятнике китайской культуры «Каноне стихов» (XI—VI вв. до н. э.). Во многих стихотворениях этого канона присутствует сюжет одиноко растущего дерева груши, символизирующий одиночество и печаль.

Издавна особое место в китайской культуре занимают и белоснежные цветущие грушевые деревья. На протяжении веков их вид и благоухание вдохновляют поэтов и художников.

Вряд ли возможно перечислить все стихи китайских поэтов, посвящённые цветению груши. Часто на тему стихотворения одного поэта слагались собственные стихи. Большой популярностью, например, пользовалось стихотворение Ван Вэя (701—761 гг.) «Лепестки грушевых цветов у левых дворцовых ворот»:

Нехотя слетают
На траву у крыльца,
Ветерок относит
Их легко от дверей.
Жёлтой иволге любо
Шалить без конца —
С лепестком впорхнула
В палаты дворца.*

*Перевод А. А. Штейнберга.

Холодная их красота —
Точь-в-точь нетронутый снег.
Чуть слышимый аромат
В одежды мои проник.
А вешний ветр ни на миг
Не замедляет бег, —
Пригнал к нефриту крыльца,
Душистый сугроб воздвиг*

Цю Вэй (694—789 гг.)

Прелестно цветут
И улыбкой радуют взгляд.
Сдается: вот-вот
С мотыльками вспорхнут наравне.
Влетает порой
Вешний ветр сквозь двери палат —
Два-три лепестка
Опустились на платье ко мне*.

Хуанфу Жань (716—769 гг.)

Разумеется, утончённый обычай любования цветением грушевых деревьев сохранился и до наших дней. Ежегодно в апреле во многих регионах Китая проводятся чрезвычайно красочные мероприятия — так называемые «Праздники цветения груш», привлекающие не только местных жителей, но и туристов со всего мира.

b6b1e4acb9.grusha_01jpg.jpg

Увы, это великолепное зрелище можно созерцать лишь весной. Но всему своё время.

В августе созревают плоды груши. Каково же отношение китайцев к этим восхитительным фруктам?

Начнём с того, что традиционно в среде образованных китайцев обычай любования цветением грушевых деревьев ценился всё-таки неизмеримо выше, чем наслаждение вкусом её плодов. Может быть поэтому в ранних книгах по китайской медицине в основном говорится лишь о вреде груш.

6bea08449e.2.jpg

Приведём лишь несколько цитат из этих произведений.

В книге «Травоведение У Пу» (III в.) есть такая запись: «При колотых и резаных ранах, а также кормящим женщинам груши есть нельзя. Избыточное потребление повреждает организм. Не являются полезным продуктом. Употребление во время отдыха после родов, а также при болезни помешает выздоровлению. Употребление груш в большом количестве непременно приведет к болезни».

Отрицательное отношение к груше прослеживается и в книге «Расширенное значение травоведения» (1116 г.): «Избыточное потребление груш повреждает селезёнку... Весьма ценятся лишь пьяницами за способность устранять сильную жажду, но никак не способны изгнать болезнь».

В более поздних книгах появляются записи об эффективности употребления плодов груш при лечении некоторых заболеваний, причем чаще всего речь идет о лечении диабета.

Начнём с рецепта под названием «Напиток лечения диабета», который содержится в знаменитой книге «Рецепты всевозможной помощи» (1409 г.), составленной под руководством Чжу Су (1361—1425 гг.) — пятого сына императора Чжу Юаньчжана (1328—1398 гг.): «Взять груш таких сортов как сян-шуй-ли, э-ли или цзян-нань-сюэ-ли, выжать сок, проварить его с мёдом, разлить в бутылки. Время от времени принимать, растворяя в горячей или холодной воде. После выздоровления приём прекратить».

Подробнейшее описание показаний и противопоказаний к употреблению груш приводится в книге выдающегося китайского ученого и врача Ли Шичжэня (1518—1593 гг.) «Цитаты из книг по травоведению с комментариями» (1590 г.). Ссылаясь на источники времени правления династии Сун (960—1279 гг.), автор поведал о нескольких случаях чудодейственного действия плодов груши в борьбе с диабетом.

Вкратце опишем лишь два из них, опустив приведенные в оригинале имена действующих лиц и специфические термины китайской медицины.

Чиновник императорского двора, страдавший диабетом, был обследован придворным лекарем. Прогноз был неутешительным. Лекарь сообщил, что болезнь уже проникла глубоко в организм и не подлежит лечению, посоветовал поскорее возвращаться в родные края, дабы произвести приготовления к смерти. По пути домой чиновник встретил некоего конского ветеринара, который подтвердил диагноз придворного лекаря, однако посоветовал есть побольше груш. Если не получится жевать, тогда выжимать из них сок. Вернувшись в родные края, больной в течение десяти дней питался лишь грушами, после чего «вновь обрёл здоровье». Придворный лекарь, узнав о чудодейственном исцелении чиновника, был очень поражен способностями ветеринара, рекомендовал его ко двору, где тот впоследствии занял должность главного императорского конюшего.

Ещё один случай. Известный врач обследовал одного больного диабетом учёного человека и предрек ему смерть через три года. Учёный удалился с обследования в весьма безрадостном настроении. Позже он прослышал, что на горе Маошань есть некий даосский монах, который владеет «божественным искусством врачевания». Поскольку монах избегал общения с мирянами и не стремился к известности в среде образованных людей и сильных мира сего, учёный облачился в одежду слуги и отправился к нему в горы на поклон с просьбой принять на службу для выполнения хозяйственных работ. Монах оставил его среди учеников. Через некоторое время учёный поведал монаху о своей болезни. Тот осмотрел его, улыбнулся и сказал: «Спускайся с гор, но изо дня в день съедай по груше. Когда свежие груши закончатся, замачивай в кипятке сушёные, съедай гущу и выпивай сок. Болезнь сама собой пройдёт». Учёный последовал этому совету, а через год вновь посетил знаменитого врача, предрекавшего ему смерть. Увидев его цветущий вид, тот с изумлением сказал: «Вы, должно быть, встречались со святым, иначе в чём же причина столь поразительного исцеления?» Учёный рассказал все подробности. Тогда врач облачился в парадные одеяния и стал отбивать земные поклоны по направлению к горе Маошань, укоряя себя в недостаточности медицинских знаний.

Приведя эти рассказы, Ли Шичжэнь (1518—1593 гг.) делает следующий вывод: «Подобные примеры заставляют усомниться в том, что действие груш столь уж ничтожно, как об этом было сказано в древних медицинских книгах... У груши немало полезных качеств, однако не надо переедать, только и всего!»

В древних и современных книгах по традиционной китайской медицине о пользе и вреде груши сказано немало. Разумеется, понимание приведённого в этих книгах материала требует определенных познаний в области китайской медицины и философии, поэтому ограничимся лишь самыми общими рекомендациями, не углубляясь в тонкости древней науки.

Итак. Плоды груши настоятельно рекомендованы к употреблению при специфическом синдроме китайской медицины под названием «синдром жара». Этот синдром в основном характеризуется стремлением к прохладе, жаждой с предпочтением холодных напитков, сухостью во рту, покраснением лица, тёмно-красным цветом языка. По представлениям китайской медицины, к этому синдрому относятся и основные типы диабета.

В разумных количествах употребление возможно в период летнего зноя и при похмельном синдроме.

Отказаться от груш или хотя бы максимально ограничить их употребление следует при «синдроме холода», который обычно сопровождается ознобами, похолоданием конечностей, предпочтением горячих напитков, светлым цветом языка. Не рекомендуется употребление груш и в послеродовой период, а также после обильной кровопотери. В этих случаях, как правило, появляется синдром «недостатка крови» (бледность, головокружение, шум в ушах, сухость и шелушение кожи, светлый цвет ногтей и языка).

Особой популярностью в Китае издавна пользуется «грушевый сироп от кашля». Однако принимать его можно отнюдь не при всех разновидностях этого симптома. Этот сироп обычно назначается при кашле с отхаркиванием жёлтой вязкой трудно отделяемой мокроты, который относится к упомянутому выше «синдрому жара».

Категорически противопоказан такой сироп при кашле, сопровождающем «синдром холода», когда происходит отхаркивание обильной светлой жидкой мокроты.

Применяются груши и наружно — в свежем виде при ожогах.

Таковы основные рекомендации по употреблению груш с позиций традиционной китайской медицины.

В заключение нашего рассказа приведем немного статистики.

В настоящее время Китай является абсолютным мировым лидером производства груш. По данным Организации по продовольствию и сельскому хозяйству при ООН, в 2010 г. на его долю приходилось 67,3% мирового производства этой культуры. Далее в списке идут Италия (3,25%), США (3,24%), Аргентина (3,11%).

Показатели на душу населения у Китая также достаточно высоки, однако эта страна занимает лишь 7 место (11,4 кг), уступая Бельгии (25 кг), Аргентине (17,5 кг), Португалии (17%), Нидерландам (16,6 кг), Италии (12,3 кг) и Испании (11,7 кг).

Среди стран СНГ лидирует Беларусь — 0,32% мирового производства и 7,6 кг на душу населения.

У России показатели скромнее — 0,18% и 0,3 кг соответственно. Поэтому настоятельно рекомендуем вам посадить дерево груши на участке, если, разумеется, его еще нет.

ОТВЕДАТЬ В ШЕСТУЮ ЛУНУ...

В шестую луну отведать мы рады
Багряные сливы и гроздь винограда

(Шицзин: Книга песен и гимнов.)

В современных источниках указывается, что в приведённом стихотворении речь шла о винограде Тунберга (Vitus thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc.), имеющем мелкие ягоды тёмно-фиолетового цвета.

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В 1995 г. в ходе раскопок близ г. Жичжао в провинции Шаньдун китайско-американской группой археологов под руководством профессора Фан Хуэя было обнаружено более 200 гончарных изделий, а также косточки винограда. Экспертиза показала, что на внутренних стенках некоторых сосудов имеются следы вина и мёда, а сами сосуды были изготовлены 4600 лет назад. По мнению учёных, они были предназначены для хранения вина, приготовленного из дикого винограда с мёдом.

А вот культурный виноград проник в Китай лишь во II в. до н. э. Об этом свидетельствуют записи в древних источниках. Известно, что к I—II вв. н. э. широкого распространения здесь он так и не получил, а лишь некоторое время выращивался в садах императора и аристократов.

Тем не менее, культурный виноград очень высоко ценился за свои вкусовые и лечебные свойства. Особо ценилось виноградное вино. В ограниченных количествах оно завозилось из Средней Азии и было очень дорогим. В ряде древних исторических сочинений описан случай, когда при Восточной династии Хань (25—220 гг.) некий состоятельный человек получил высокую должность начальника округа после того как преподнес влиятельному евнуху 1 ху (приблизительно 100 литров) виноградного вина. Как указано в источнике, евнух «испытал от подношения великую радость».

С призывом заниматься виноградарством и виноделием обращался к подданным Цао Пи (187—226 гг.) — основатель династии Вэй Эпохи Троецарствия. Однако отклика в народе этот призыв так и не получил. Сказались политическая нестабильность, многочисленные разрушительные нашествия кочевников, связанные с этим миграция населения и недостаток сельскохозяйственных площадей, а также сложность агротехники винограда с невозможностью получения стабильных урожаев высокого качества. Кроме того, виноградное вино не могло составить конкуренцию традиционному китайскому вину из зерновых культур, так как его приготовление возможно лишь осенью, тогда как вино из зерна можно готовить в любое время года.

Ко времени правления династии Тан (618—907 гг.) в срединных районах Китая виноградарство было практически неизвестно. В книге «Новая книга южных областей» (XI в.) говорится: «Император Тай-цзун при разгроме Гаочана (древний город) добыл виноград сорта «кобылье молоко» (столовый виноград сорта хусайне («дамские пальчики»), который стал выращивать в императорском саду. Также завладел технологией виноделия... Приготовленное вино было зеленоватого цвета... Лишь тогда в Чанъане* узнали его вкус».

*Чанъань — древняя столица Китая. По мнению многих исследователей, в VII—IX вв. был самым крупным мегаполисом мира с населением 800 000—1 000 000 жителей. Ныне имеет название Сиань, является административным центром провинции Шэньси.

Постепенно начинается выращивание винограда в некоторых внутренних регионах Китая, хотя он так и не стал здесь важной сельскохозяйственной культурой.

Об ограниченности ареала распространения винограда в Китае сообщает венецианский торговец и путешественник Марко Поло (1254—1324 гг.). Вот что сказано об этом в его знаменитой «Книге о разнообразии мира»: «Весь почти народ в области Катай пьёт вот какое вино: приготовляют его из риса с другими хорошими пряностями, и питье выходит лучше всякого другого вина... Город Таян-фу, куда мы пришли, большой и красивый, торговля тут великая, а также промышленность... Много здесь отличных виноградников, и вина выделывается вдоволь; во всей области Катай одно это [виноградное] вино; из того города оно развозится по всей области».

Ко времени правления династии Мин (1368—1644 гг.) китайцам было известно несколько сортов винограда. Вот как, например, описал эти сорта известный учёный Сюй Гуанци (1562—1633 гг.): «„Хрустальный виноград“ имеет крупные овальные ягоды с беловатым налётом, сладкого вкуса. „Фиолетовый виноград“ — чёрного цвета, имеет две разновидности — крупный и мелкий, а также два вкуса — кислый и сладкий. „Зелёный виноград“ из Сычуани после созревания имеет зеленоватый цвет. А „зелёный виноград“ с Запада называется „заячий глаз“, он слаще сахара и мёда, без косточек, является поистине драгоценным продуктом. „Мелкий виноград“ с Запада имеет мелкие плоды размером с горошины чёрного перца. Виноград из Юньнани размером с унаби, имеет исключительно высокие вкусовые качества. Виноград, вывезенный из Персии, размером с куриное яйцо, его можно употреблять в свежем виде или готовить из него вино, а сушить его очень трудно».

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Испокон веков китайская медицина уделяет винограду особое внимание. В древнем классическом трактате «Канон травоведения Священного земледельца» он был описан первым среди продуктов высшего разряда в разделе «Фрукты и овощи», что указывало на его исключительные целебные качества.

Вот что сказано о винограде в этом произведении: «Лечит боль в суставах. Восполняет жизненную энергию Ци, удваивает силу, укрепляет волю. Позволяет человеку быть упитанным и здоровым, делает его устойчивым к голоду, способным противостоять простуде. Длительное потребление придаёт лёгкость телу, позволяет противодействовать старению, продлевает годы жизни».

В древних и современных руководствах по китайской медицине виноград рассматривается как один из основных продуктов питания, способствующих восполнению жизненной энергии Ци и крови. Его употребление в разумных количествах настоятельно рекомендуется при таких специфических синдромах китайской медицины как недостаток Ци и крови, недостаток Ци лёгких, недостаток Инь печени и почек. Также считается, что регулярное употребление винограда способствует усилению умственных способностей человека.

Особенно полезен виноград после болезней с ослаблением организма, детям, беременным женщинам и пожилым людям. Летом и осенью его рекомендуется употреблять в свежем виде, зимой и весной — в виде изюма или сока.

Беременным женщинам при повышенной двигательной активности плода китайскими врачами обычно предписывается употребление дважды в день компота, приготовленного из 30 г винограда или изюма.

По данным Организации по продовольствию и сельскому хозяйству при ООН, в 2010 г. Китай занял первое место в мире по валовому сбору винограда (12,7% мирового производства). Однако по показателям на душу населения он занимает лишь 50 место (6,5 кг). У России показатели скромнее — 0,47% и 2,3 кг соответственно.

Мировыми лидерами в производстве винограда на душу населения являются Чили (165 кг), Италия (134 кг), Испания (131 кг). В этих странах большая часть винограда перерабатывается в вино, в то время как в Китае преобладают столовые и кишмишно-изюмные сорта.

Следует отметить, что столовое вино западного типа не пользуется широкой популярностью в Китае. Здесь традиционно предпочитают сладкое виноградное вино, обычно с добавлением трав и пряностей, иногда полученное путем сбраживания с рисом.

В последнее время ситуация несколько меняется. Вина западного образца становятся модными и престижными среди обеспеченных слоев населения современного Китая. С помощью французских винодельческих компаний в ряде регионов Китая созданы винодельческие предприятия. Китайские виноделы пытаются продвигать свою продукцию на зарубежные рынки, однако в самом Китае сила традиций и вкусов все-таки очень сильна, поэтому ожидать широкого распространения культуры употребления виноградных вин западного типа здесь едва ли возможно.

Основным местом производства винограда в Китае является Турфанский оазис в Синьцзян-Уйгурском автономном районе. Здесь производится 75% изюма в стране. Турфанский виноград имеет очень высокие вкусовые и товарные качества, а изготовленный из него изюм по праву может считаться лучшим в мире.

Осенью в городе Турфан проходит ежегодный праздник винограда «Шёлковый путь». Это необычайно красочное зрелище привлекает туристов со всего мира и является одним из важнейших культурных событий года в регионе.

На улицах города проходят фольклорные представления и концерты, свадебные церемонии в традициях уйгуров, театрализованные представления, шествия караванов верблюдов, экскурсии по особой «виноградной аллее», на которой туристы могут сами срывать свежий виноград.

По данным оргкомитета мероприятия, в 2012 году на праздник винограда в Турфан прибыло более 2000 туристических групп.

ХЕНОМЕЛЕС ПРЕКРАСНАЯ

Мне ты в подарок принёс плод айвы ароматный,
Яшмой прекрасною был мой подарок обратный.
Не для того я дарила, чтоб нам обменяться дарами,
А для того, чтобы вечной осталась любовь между нами.

Шицзин: Книга песен и гимнов

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Сегодня мы поговорим о растении, которое испокон веков пользовалось особой популярностью в Китае. Его ботаническое название — хеномелес прекрасная (Chaenomeles speciosa). Такое название было дано ему европейскими ботаниками в конце XVIII в. Хеномелес — кустовое растение, обычно с колючими ветками и плодами небольшого размера, по виду напоминающими айву. Видимо поэтому оно больше известно у нас как «японская айва».

В отличие от европейцев, китайцы нашли в нем сходство не с айвой, а с маленькой дыней, растущей на небольшом деревце. Перевод китайского названия хеномелес — «древесная дыня» (му-гуа). Известно, что Китай – родина этого растения. Первое упоминание о нём встречается в древнейшем памятнике китайской культуры «Каноне стихов» (XI—VI вв. до н. э.):

Хеномелес — поистине удивительное растение. Удивительно в нем всё — и восхитительные цветки, распускающиеся ранней весной, и целебные свойства плодов, и неповторимый нежный аромат.

Начнём с аромата. Собранные и даже высушенные плоды хеномелеса очень долго сохраняют свой тонкий аромат. Именно поэтому китайцы издавна используют их для ароматизации своих жилищ. В Древнем Китае существовал обычай расставлять блюда с плодами хеномелеса в жилых комнатах, чаще всего в спальных покоях супругов. Считалось, что благоухание этих плодов возбуждает любовное влечение.

В популярном романе «Сон в красном тереме» (XVIII в.) описывается, как один из главных героев романа по имени Цзя Баоюй очутился в спальне красавицы Цинь Кэцин. На столике он увидел золотое блюдо с крупным плодом хеномелеса. «У Баоюя в носу сразу защекотало от какого-то едва уловимого аромата, глаза стали слипаться, он почувствовал во всем теле сладостную истому...» Баоюй погрузился в сон, в котором он общался с небесными феями из сказочного мира Великой пустоты и с волшебным образом самой хозяйки комнаты...

Из высушенных плодов также готовили пудру, которую женщины наносили на лицо и тело.

Нередко плоды хеномелеса раскладывали в сундуках с одеждой и в книжных шкафах. Со временем одежда и книги пропитывались восхитительным ароматом, что не только свидетельствовало об особой утончённости нравов их обладателей, но и предохраняло вещи от моли.

А вот для борьбы с клопами мелко нарезанные плоды хеномелес обычно раскладывали под спальными циновками.

О целебных свойствах плодов хеномелеса в Китае известно очень давно. В народе его издавна называют «плодом вечного долголетия», «царём плодов с сотней полезных свойств».

Известный комментатор древних текстов Лу Дянь (1042—1102 гг.) некогда писал: «Люди говорят, что плод груши обладает сотней вредных и лишь одним полезным свойствами, а плод хеномелеса — сотней полезных и одним вредным».

Знаменитый ученый и врач Тао Хунцзин (456—536 гг.) писал следующее: «Хеномелес особо эффективен в лечении спазма мышц конечностей. При появлении спазма можно просто произносить его название или написать иероглифы «му-гуа» (древесная дыня) на бумаге. Болезнь пройдёт. Объяснения этому явлению нет. В народе также говорят, что ходьба с посохом, изготовленным из древесины хеномелеса, укрепляет сухожилия».

В одной из древних медицинских книг описан следующий случай. Некий человек страдал бери-бери (авитаминоз) с отёками, судорогами и болью в ногах. Однажды, путешествуя по реке на лодке, он поставил ноги на какой-то мешок. Постепенно боль в ногах утихла. Тогда он спросил у лодочника, чем же наполнен мешок. Лодочник ответил, что в мешке плоды хеномелеса. Вернувшись домой, больной взял мешок и наполнил его нарезанными плодами, регулярно топтался по нему ногами и вскоре полностью избавился от своей болезни.

В знаменитой книге «Собрание чудодейственных рецептов Великого спокойствия» (992 г.) сухие и блёклые волосы рекомендуется расчёсывать гребнем с нанесённым на него растительным маслом, настоянном на измельчённых плодах хеномелеса.

В современных руководствах по китайской медицине плод хеномелес отнесён к группе лекарств, основным действием которых является устранение артритов. Среди показаний к применению также указываются спазмы икроножных мышц, бери-бери, отёк и слабость ног, острая рвота и понос.

Из-за кислого вкуса, грубой кожицы и твёрдой мякоти плоды айвы японской в свежем виде практически не употребляют.

В настоящее время в китайской медицине в основном используются слегка отваренные, а затем высушенные на солнце дольки плодов хеномелеса. Вместе с другими лекарствами их вводят в отвары.

В древности способы обработки были несколько иными. Вот что говорится, например, в одной медицинской книге V в.: «При обработке этих плодов нельзя пользоваться железной утварью. Следует срезать медным ножом жёсткую кожуру, удалить семена, нарезать плоды на кусочки и высушить их на солнце. Затем смешать их с молоком жёлтой коровы и варить на пару от части суток Сы (09:00—11:00) до части суток Вэй (13:00—15:00) — до пастообразного состояния, после чего вновь высушить на солнце».

Знаменитый врач Ли Шичжэнь (1518—1593 гг.) предложил свой способ обработки плодов хеномелеса: «Удалить семена, сварить на пару до размягчения, растолочь, добавить мёд и свежий имбирь, вскипятить. Особенно прекрасно принимать это целебное лакомство в зимние месяцы».

Из плодов хеномелеса также готовят медовые цукаты, варенье, настойки, ароматную муку.

Утончённый обычай любования цветением плодовых деревьев — неотъемлемая часть китайской культуры. Не оставляет равнодушными китайцев и вид цветущих деревьев хеномелеса. В последнее время хеномелес находит все большее применение в декоративном садоводстве. Она не боится морозов, хорошо переносит засуху. Так что выращивание этого удивительного растения принесёт вам истинную радость. Весной вы сможете любоваться нежным цветением, осенью айва подарит вам свои плоды, которые не только весьма полезны для здоровья, но и на долгое время наполнят ваш дом чарующим ароматом любви.

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Для любителей следовать советам китайской народной медицины заметки знатока растений и секретов китайского здоровья Павла Белоусова. Он предлагает посмотреть на грушу, айву и виноград глазами древних и современных китайцев.

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В Китае груша известна с незапамятных времен. Об этом свидетельствуют неоднократные упоминания о её деревьях в древнейшем памятнике китайской культуры «Каноне стихов» (XI—VI вв. до н. э.). Во многих стихотворениях этого канона присутствует сюжет одиноко растущего дерева груши, символизирующий одиночество и печаль.

Издавна особое место в китайской культуре занимают и белоснежные цветущие грушевые деревья. На протяжении веков их вид и благоухание вдохновляют поэтов и художников.

Вряд ли возможно перечислить все стихи китайских поэтов, посвящённые цветению груши. Часто на тему стихотворения одного поэта слагались собственные стихи. Большой популярностью, например, пользовалось стихотворение Ван Вэя (701—761 гг.) «Лепестки грушевых цветов у левых дворцовых ворот»:

Нехотя слетают
На траву у крыльца,
Ветерок относит
Их легко от дверей.
Жёлтой иволге любо
Шалить без конца —
С лепестком впорхнула
В палаты дворца.*

*Перевод А. А. Штейнберга.

Холодная их красота —
Точь-в-точь нетронутый снег.
Чуть слышимый аромат
В одежды мои проник.
А вешний ветр ни на миг
Не замедляет бег, —
Пригнал к нефриту крыльца,
Душистый сугроб воздвиг*

Цю Вэй (694—789 гг.)

Прелестно цветут
И улыбкой радуют взгляд.
Сдается: вот-вот
С мотыльками вспорхнут наравне.
Влетает порой
Вешний ветр сквозь двери палат —
Два-три лепестка
Опустились на платье ко мне*.

Хуанфу Жань (716—769 гг.)

Разумеется, утончённый обычай любования цветением грушевых деревьев сохранился и до наших дней. Ежегодно в апреле во многих регионах Китая проводятся чрезвычайно красочные мероприятия — так называемые «Праздники цветения груш», привлекающие не только местных жителей, но и туристов со всего мира.

b6b1e4acb9.grusha_01jpg.jpg

Увы, это великолепное зрелище можно созерцать лишь весной. Но всему своё время.

В августе созревают плоды груши. Каково же отношение китайцев к этим восхитительным фруктам?

Начнём с того, что традиционно в среде образованных китайцев обычай любования цветением грушевых деревьев ценился всё-таки неизмеримо выше, чем наслаждение вкусом её плодов. Может быть поэтому в ранних книгах по китайской медицине в основном говорится лишь о вреде груш.

6bea08449e.2.jpg

Приведём лишь несколько цитат из этих произведений.

В книге «Травоведение У Пу» (III в.) есть такая запись: «При колотых и резаных ранах, а также кормящим женщинам груши есть нельзя. Избыточное потребление повреждает организм. Не являются полезным продуктом. Употребление во время отдыха после родов, а также при болезни помешает выздоровлению. Употребление груш в большом количестве непременно приведет к болезни».

Отрицательное отношение к груше прослеживается и в книге «Расширенное значение травоведения» (1116 г.): «Избыточное потребление груш повреждает селезёнку... Весьма ценятся лишь пьяницами за способность устранять сильную жажду, но никак не способны изгнать болезнь».

В более поздних книгах появляются записи об эффективности употребления плодов груш при лечении некоторых заболеваний, причем чаще всего речь идет о лечении диабета.

Начнём с рецепта под названием «Напиток лечения диабета», который содержится в знаменитой книге «Рецепты всевозможной помощи» (1409 г.), составленной под руководством Чжу Су (1361—1425 гг.) — пятого сына императора Чжу Юаньчжана (1328—1398 гг.): «Взять груш таких сортов как сян-шуй-ли, э-ли или цзян-нань-сюэ-ли, выжать сок, проварить его с мёдом, разлить в бутылки. Время от времени принимать, растворяя в горячей или холодной воде. После выздоровления приём прекратить».

Подробнейшее описание показаний и противопоказаний к употреблению груш приводится в книге выдающегося китайского ученого и врача Ли Шичжэня (1518—1593 гг.) «Цитаты из книг по травоведению с комментариями» (1590 г.). Ссылаясь на источники времени правления династии Сун (960—1279 гг.), автор поведал о нескольких случаях чудодейственного действия плодов груши в борьбе с диабетом.

Вкратце опишем лишь два из них, опустив приведенные в оригинале имена действующих лиц и специфические термины китайской медицины.

Чиновник императорского двора, страдавший диабетом, был обследован придворным лекарем. Прогноз был неутешительным. Лекарь сообщил, что болезнь уже проникла глубоко в организм и не подлежит лечению, посоветовал поскорее возвращаться в родные края, дабы произвести приготовления к смерти. По пути домой чиновник встретил некоего конского ветеринара, который подтвердил диагноз придворного лекаря, однако посоветовал есть побольше груш. Если не получится жевать, тогда выжимать из них сок. Вернувшись в родные края, больной в течение десяти дней питался лишь грушами, после чего «вновь обрёл здоровье». Придворный лекарь, узнав о чудодейственном исцелении чиновника, был очень поражен способностями ветеринара, рекомендовал его ко двору, где тот впоследствии занял должность главного императорского конюшего.

Ещё один случай. Известный врач обследовал одного больного диабетом учёного человека и предрек ему смерть через три года. Учёный удалился с обследования в весьма безрадостном настроении. Позже он прослышал, что на горе Маошань есть некий даосский монах, который владеет «божественным искусством врачевания». Поскольку монах избегал общения с мирянами и не стремился к известности в среде образованных людей и сильных мира сего, учёный облачился в одежду слуги и отправился к нему в горы на поклон с просьбой принять на службу для выполнения хозяйственных работ. Монах оставил его среди учеников. Через некоторое время учёный поведал монаху о своей болезни. Тот осмотрел его, улыбнулся и сказал: «Спускайся с гор, но изо дня в день съедай по груше. Когда свежие груши закончатся, замачивай в кипятке сушёные, съедай гущу и выпивай сок. Болезнь сама собой пройдёт». Учёный последовал этому совету, а через год вновь посетил знаменитого врача, предрекавшего ему смерть. Увидев его цветущий вид, тот с изумлением сказал: «Вы, должно быть, встречались со святым, иначе в чём же причина столь поразительного исцеления?» Учёный рассказал все подробности. Тогда врач облачился в парадные одеяния и стал отбивать земные поклоны по направлению к горе Маошань, укоряя себя в недостаточности медицинских знаний.

Приведя эти рассказы, Ли Шичжэнь (1518—1593 гг.) делает следующий вывод: «Подобные примеры заставляют усомниться в том, что действие груш столь уж ничтожно, как об этом было сказано в древних медицинских книгах... У груши немало полезных качеств, однако не надо переедать, только и всего!»

В древних и современных книгах по традиционной китайской медицине о пользе и вреде груши сказано немало. Разумеется, понимание приведённого в этих книгах материала требует определенных познаний в области китайской медицины и философии, поэтому ограничимся лишь самыми общими рекомендациями, не углубляясь в тонкости древней науки.

Итак. Плоды груши настоятельно рекомендованы к употреблению при специфическом синдроме китайской медицины под названием «синдром жара». Этот синдром в основном характеризуется стремлением к прохладе, жаждой с предпочтением холодных напитков, сухостью во рту, покраснением лица, тёмно-красным цветом языка. По представлениям китайской медицины, к этому синдрому относятся и основные типы диабета.

В разумных количествах употребление возможно в период летнего зноя и при похмельном синдроме.

Отказаться от груш или хотя бы максимально ограничить их употребление следует при «синдроме холода», который обычно сопровождается ознобами, похолоданием конечностей, предпочтением горячих напитков, светлым цветом языка. Не рекомендуется употребление груш и в послеродовой период, а также после обильной кровопотери. В этих случаях, как правило, появляется синдром «недостатка крови» (бледность, головокружение, шум в ушах, сухость и шелушение кожи, светлый цвет ногтей и языка).

Особой популярностью в Китае издавна пользуется «грушевый сироп от кашля». Однако принимать его можно отнюдь не при всех разновидностях этого симптома. Этот сироп обычно назначается при кашле с отхаркиванием жёлтой вязкой трудно отделяемой мокроты, который относится к упомянутому выше «синдрому жара».

Категорически противопоказан такой сироп при кашле, сопровождающем «синдром холода», когда происходит отхаркивание обильной светлой жидкой мокроты.

Применяются груши и наружно — в свежем виде при ожогах.

Таковы основные рекомендации по употреблению груш с позиций традиционной китайской медицины.

В заключение нашего рассказа приведем немного статистики.

В настоящее время Китай является абсолютным мировым лидером производства груш. По данным Организации по продовольствию и сельскому хозяйству при ООН, в 2010 г. на его долю приходилось 67,3% мирового производства этой культуры. Далее в списке идут Италия (3,25%), США (3,24%), Аргентина (3,11%).

Показатели на душу населения у Китая также достаточно высоки, однако эта страна занимает лишь 7 место (11,4 кг), уступая Бельгии (25 кг), Аргентине (17,5 кг), Португалии (17%), Нидерландам (16,6 кг), Италии (12,3 кг) и Испании (11,7 кг).

Среди стран СНГ лидирует Беларусь — 0,32% мирового производства и 7,6 кг на душу населения.

У России показатели скромнее — 0,18% и 0,3 кг соответственно. Поэтому настоятельно рекомендуем вам посадить дерево груши на участке, если, разумеется, его еще нет.

ОТВЕДАТЬ В ШЕСТУЮ ЛУНУ...

В шестую луну отведать мы рады
Багряные сливы и гроздь винограда

(Шицзин: Книга песен и гимнов.)

В современных источниках указывается, что в приведённом стихотворении речь шла о винограде Тунберга (Vitus thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc.), имеющем мелкие ягоды тёмно-фиолетового цвета.

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В 1995 г. в ходе раскопок близ г. Жичжао в провинции Шаньдун китайско-американской группой археологов под руководством профессора Фан Хуэя было обнаружено более 200 гончарных изделий, а также косточки винограда. Экспертиза показала, что на внутренних стенках некоторых сосудов имеются следы вина и мёда, а сами сосуды были изготовлены 4600 лет назад. По мнению учёных, они были предназначены для хранения вина, приготовленного из дикого винограда с мёдом.

А вот культурный виноград проник в Китай лишь во II в. до н. э. Об этом свидетельствуют записи в древних источниках. Известно, что к I—II вв. н. э. широкого распространения здесь он так и не получил, а лишь некоторое время выращивался в садах императора и аристократов.

Тем не менее, культурный виноград очень высоко ценился за свои вкусовые и лечебные свойства. Особо ценилось виноградное вино. В ограниченных количествах оно завозилось из Средней Азии и было очень дорогим. В ряде древних исторических сочинений описан случай, когда при Восточной династии Хань (25—220 гг.) некий состоятельный человек получил высокую должность начальника округа после того как преподнес влиятельному евнуху 1 ху (приблизительно 100 литров) виноградного вина. Как указано в источнике, евнух «испытал от подношения великую радость».

С призывом заниматься виноградарством и виноделием обращался к подданным Цао Пи (187—226 гг.) — основатель династии Вэй Эпохи Троецарствия. Однако отклика в народе этот призыв так и не получил. Сказались политическая нестабильность, многочисленные разрушительные нашествия кочевников, связанные с этим миграция населения и недостаток сельскохозяйственных площадей, а также сложность агротехники винограда с невозможностью получения стабильных урожаев высокого качества. Кроме того, виноградное вино не могло составить конкуренцию традиционному китайскому вину из зерновых культур, так как его приготовление возможно лишь осенью, тогда как вино из зерна можно готовить в любое время года.

Ко времени правления династии Тан (618—907 гг.) в срединных районах Китая виноградарство было практически неизвестно. В книге «Новая книга южных областей» (XI в.) говорится: «Император Тай-цзун при разгроме Гаочана (древний город) добыл виноград сорта «кобылье молоко» (столовый виноград сорта хусайне («дамские пальчики»), который стал выращивать в императорском саду. Также завладел технологией виноделия... Приготовленное вино было зеленоватого цвета... Лишь тогда в Чанъане* узнали его вкус».

*Чанъань — древняя столица Китая. По мнению многих исследователей, в VII—IX вв. был самым крупным мегаполисом мира с населением 800 000—1 000 000 жителей. Ныне имеет название Сиань, является административным центром провинции Шэньси.

Постепенно начинается выращивание винограда в некоторых внутренних регионах Китая, хотя он так и не стал здесь важной сельскохозяйственной культурой.

Об ограниченности ареала распространения винограда в Китае сообщает венецианский торговец и путешественник Марко Поло (1254—1324 гг.). Вот что сказано об этом в его знаменитой «Книге о разнообразии мира»: «Весь почти народ в области Катай пьёт вот какое вино: приготовляют его из риса с другими хорошими пряностями, и питье выходит лучше всякого другого вина... Город Таян-фу, куда мы пришли, большой и красивый, торговля тут великая, а также промышленность... Много здесь отличных виноградников, и вина выделывается вдоволь; во всей области Катай одно это [виноградное] вино; из того города оно развозится по всей области».

Ко времени правления династии Мин (1368—1644 гг.) китайцам было известно несколько сортов винограда. Вот как, например, описал эти сорта известный учёный Сюй Гуанци (1562—1633 гг.): «„Хрустальный виноград“ имеет крупные овальные ягоды с беловатым налётом, сладкого вкуса. „Фиолетовый виноград“ — чёрного цвета, имеет две разновидности — крупный и мелкий, а также два вкуса — кислый и сладкий. „Зелёный виноград“ из Сычуани после созревания имеет зеленоватый цвет. А „зелёный виноград“ с Запада называется „заячий глаз“, он слаще сахара и мёда, без косточек, является поистине драгоценным продуктом. „Мелкий виноград“ с Запада имеет мелкие плоды размером с горошины чёрного перца. Виноград из Юньнани размером с унаби, имеет исключительно высокие вкусовые качества. Виноград, вывезенный из Персии, размером с куриное яйцо, его можно употреблять в свежем виде или готовить из него вино, а сушить его очень трудно».

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Испокон веков китайская медицина уделяет винограду особое внимание. В древнем классическом трактате «Канон травоведения Священного земледельца» он был описан первым среди продуктов высшего разряда в разделе «Фрукты и овощи», что указывало на его исключительные целебные качества.

Вот что сказано о винограде в этом произведении: «Лечит боль в суставах. Восполняет жизненную энергию Ци, удваивает силу, укрепляет волю. Позволяет человеку быть упитанным и здоровым, делает его устойчивым к голоду, способным противостоять простуде. Длительное потребление придаёт лёгкость телу, позволяет противодействовать старению, продлевает годы жизни».

В древних и современных руководствах по китайской медицине виноград рассматривается как один из основных продуктов питания, способствующих восполнению жизненной энергии Ци и крови. Его употребление в разумных количествах настоятельно рекомендуется при таких специфических синдромах китайской медицины как недостаток Ци и крови, недостаток Ци лёгких, недостаток Инь печени и почек. Также считается, что регулярное употребление винограда способствует усилению умственных способностей человека.

Особенно полезен виноград после болезней с ослаблением организма, детям, беременным женщинам и пожилым людям. Летом и осенью его рекомендуется употреблять в свежем виде, зимой и весной — в виде изюма или сока.

Беременным женщинам при повышенной двигательной активности плода китайскими врачами обычно предписывается употребление дважды в день компота, приготовленного из 30 г винограда или изюма.

По данным Организации по продовольствию и сельскому хозяйству при ООН, в 2010 г. Китай занял первое место в мире по валовому сбору винограда (12,7% мирового производства). Однако по показателям на душу населения он занимает лишь 50 место (6,5 кг). У России показатели скромнее — 0,47% и 2,3 кг соответственно.

Мировыми лидерами в производстве винограда на душу населения являются Чили (165 кг), Италия (134 кг), Испания (131 кг). В этих странах большая часть винограда перерабатывается в вино, в то время как в Китае преобладают столовые и кишмишно-изюмные сорта.

Следует отметить, что столовое вино западного типа не пользуется широкой популярностью в Китае. Здесь традиционно предпочитают сладкое виноградное вино, обычно с добавлением трав и пряностей, иногда полученное путем сбраживания с рисом.

В последнее время ситуация несколько меняется. Вина западного образца становятся модными и престижными среди обеспеченных слоев населения современного Китая. С помощью французских винодельческих компаний в ряде регионов Китая созданы винодельческие предприятия. Китайские виноделы пытаются продвигать свою продукцию на зарубежные рынки, однако в самом Китае сила традиций и вкусов все-таки очень сильна, поэтому ожидать широкого распространения культуры употребления виноградных вин западного типа здесь едва ли возможно.

Основным местом производства винограда в Китае является Турфанский оазис в Синьцзян-Уйгурском автономном районе. Здесь производится 75% изюма в стране. Турфанский виноград имеет очень высокие вкусовые и товарные качества, а изготовленный из него изюм по праву может считаться лучшим в мире.

Осенью в городе Турфан проходит ежегодный праздник винограда «Шёлковый путь». Это необычайно красочное зрелище привлекает туристов со всего мира и является одним из важнейших культурных событий года в регионе.

На улицах города проходят фольклорные представления и концерты, свадебные церемонии в традициях уйгуров, театрализованные представления, шествия караванов верблюдов, экскурсии по особой «виноградной аллее», на которой туристы могут сами срывать свежий виноград.

По данным оргкомитета мероприятия, в 2012 году на праздник винограда в Турфан прибыло более 2000 туристических групп.

ХЕНОМЕЛЕС ПРЕКРАСНАЯ

Мне ты в подарок принёс плод айвы ароматный,
Яшмой прекрасною был мой подарок обратный.
Не для того я дарила, чтоб нам обменяться дарами,
А для того, чтобы вечной осталась любовь между нами.

Шицзин: Книга песен и гимнов

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Сегодня мы поговорим о растении, которое испокон веков пользовалось особой популярностью в Китае. Его ботаническое название — хеномелес прекрасная (Chaenomeles speciosa). Такое название было дано ему европейскими ботаниками в конце XVIII в. Хеномелес — кустовое растение, обычно с колючими ветками и плодами небольшого размера, по виду напоминающими айву. Видимо поэтому оно больше известно у нас как «японская айва».

В отличие от европейцев, китайцы нашли в нем сходство не с айвой, а с маленькой дыней, растущей на небольшом деревце. Перевод китайского названия хеномелес — «древесная дыня» (му-гуа). Известно, что Китай – родина этого растения. Первое упоминание о нём встречается в древнейшем памятнике китайской культуры «Каноне стихов» (XI—VI вв. до н. э.):

Хеномелес — поистине удивительное растение. Удивительно в нем всё — и восхитительные цветки, распускающиеся ранней весной, и целебные свойства плодов, и неповторимый нежный аромат.

Начнём с аромата. Собранные и даже высушенные плоды хеномелеса очень долго сохраняют свой тонкий аромат. Именно поэтому китайцы издавна используют их для ароматизации своих жилищ. В Древнем Китае существовал обычай расставлять блюда с плодами хеномелеса в жилых комнатах, чаще всего в спальных покоях супругов. Считалось, что благоухание этих плодов возбуждает любовное влечение.

В популярном романе «Сон в красном тереме» (XVIII в.) описывается, как один из главных героев романа по имени Цзя Баоюй очутился в спальне красавицы Цинь Кэцин. На столике он увидел золотое блюдо с крупным плодом хеномелеса. «У Баоюя в носу сразу защекотало от какого-то едва уловимого аромата, глаза стали слипаться, он почувствовал во всем теле сладостную истому...» Баоюй погрузился в сон, в котором он общался с небесными феями из сказочного мира Великой пустоты и с волшебным образом самой хозяйки комнаты...

Из высушенных плодов также готовили пудру, которую женщины наносили на лицо и тело.

Нередко плоды хеномелеса раскладывали в сундуках с одеждой и в книжных шкафах. Со временем одежда и книги пропитывались восхитительным ароматом, что не только свидетельствовало об особой утончённости нравов их обладателей, но и предохраняло вещи от моли.

А вот для борьбы с клопами мелко нарезанные плоды хеномелес обычно раскладывали под спальными циновками.

О целебных свойствах плодов хеномелеса в Китае известно очень давно. В народе его издавна называют «плодом вечного долголетия», «царём плодов с сотней полезных свойств».

Известный комментатор древних текстов Лу Дянь (1042—1102 гг.) некогда писал: «Люди говорят, что плод груши обладает сотней вредных и лишь одним полезным свойствами, а плод хеномелеса — сотней полезных и одним вредным».

Знаменитый ученый и врач Тао Хунцзин (456—536 гг.) писал следующее: «Хеномелес особо эффективен в лечении спазма мышц конечностей. При появлении спазма можно просто произносить его название или написать иероглифы «му-гуа» (древесная дыня) на бумаге. Болезнь пройдёт. Объяснения этому явлению нет. В народе также говорят, что ходьба с посохом, изготовленным из древесины хеномелеса, укрепляет сухожилия».

В одной из древних медицинских книг описан следующий случай. Некий человек страдал бери-бери (авитаминоз) с отёками, судорогами и болью в ногах. Однажды, путешествуя по реке на лодке, он поставил ноги на какой-то мешок. Постепенно боль в ногах утихла. Тогда он спросил у лодочника, чем же наполнен мешок. Лодочник ответил, что в мешке плоды хеномелеса. Вернувшись домой, больной взял мешок и наполнил его нарезанными плодами, регулярно топтался по нему ногами и вскоре полностью избавился от своей болезни.

В знаменитой книге «Собрание чудодейственных рецептов Великого спокойствия» (992 г.) сухие и блёклые волосы рекомендуется расчёсывать гребнем с нанесённым на него растительным маслом, настоянном на измельчённых плодах хеномелеса.

В современных руководствах по китайской медицине плод хеномелес отнесён к группе лекарств, основным действием которых является устранение артритов. Среди показаний к применению также указываются спазмы икроножных мышц, бери-бери, отёк и слабость ног, острая рвота и понос.

Из-за кислого вкуса, грубой кожицы и твёрдой мякоти плоды айвы японской в свежем виде практически не употребляют.

В настоящее время в китайской медицине в основном используются слегка отваренные, а затем высушенные на солнце дольки плодов хеномелеса. Вместе с другими лекарствами их вводят в отвары.

В древности способы обработки были несколько иными. Вот что говорится, например, в одной медицинской книге V в.: «При обработке этих плодов нельзя пользоваться железной утварью. Следует срезать медным ножом жёсткую кожуру, удалить семена, нарезать плоды на кусочки и высушить их на солнце. Затем смешать их с молоком жёлтой коровы и варить на пару от части суток Сы (09:00—11:00) до части суток Вэй (13:00—15:00) — до пастообразного состояния, после чего вновь высушить на солнце».

Знаменитый врач Ли Шичжэнь (1518—1593 гг.) предложил свой способ обработки плодов хеномелеса: «Удалить семена, сварить на пару до размягчения, растолочь, добавить мёд и свежий имбирь, вскипятить. Особенно прекрасно принимать это целебное лакомство в зимние месяцы».

Из плодов хеномелеса также готовят медовые цукаты, варенье, настойки, ароматную муку.

Утончённый обычай любования цветением плодовых деревьев — неотъемлемая часть китайской культуры. Не оставляет равнодушными китайцев и вид цветущих деревьев хеномелеса. В последнее время хеномелес находит все большее применение в декоративном садоводстве. Она не боится морозов, хорошо переносит засуху. Так что выращивание этого удивительного растения принесёт вам истинную радость. Весной вы сможете любоваться нежным цветением, осенью айва подарит вам свои плоды, которые не только весьма полезны для здоровья, но и на долгое время наполнят ваш дом чарующим ароматом любви.

[short_text] =>

Для любителей следовать советам китайской народной медицины заметки знатока растений и секретов китайского здоровья Павла Белоусова. Он предлагает посмотреть на грушу, айву и виноград глазами древних и современных китайцев.

[keywords] => его, что, при, винограда, китайской, лишь, хеномелеса, груши, также, плодов, как, груш, время, вино, Китае, плоды, виноград, очень, древних, после [description] => 200 гончарных изделий, а также косточки винограда. [created] => 1387374195 [updated] => 1388228573 [userId] => 3 [authorName] => [category] => 5 [fixed] => 0 [views] => 3049 [tags] => китайская медицина,груша,виноград,айва,Павел Белоусов [glav_img] => /uploads/page_glav/201312/3/.thumb/089a706feb.qianlong_01jpg.jpg [status] => 1 ) [_related:yii\db\BaseActiveRecord:private] => Array ( ) [_errors:yii\base\Model:private] => [_validators:yii\base\Model:private] => [_scenario:yii\base\Model:private] => default [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( [beforeInsert] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [0] => yii\behaviors\TimestampBehavior Object ( [createdAtAttribute] => created_at [updatedAtAttribute] => updated_at [value] => [attributes] => Array ( [beforeInsert] => Array ( [0] => created [1] => updated ) [beforeUpdate] => updated ) [owner] => common\models\Pages Object *RECURSION* ) [1] => evaluateAttributes ) [1] => ) ) [beforeUpdate] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [0] => yii\behaviors\TimestampBehavior Object ( [createdAtAttribute] => created_at [updatedAtAttribute] => updated_at [value] => [attributes] => Array ( [beforeInsert] => Array ( [0] => created [1] => updated ) [beforeUpdate] => updated ) [owner] => common\models\Pages Object *RECURSION* ) [1] => evaluateAttributes ) [1] => ) ) ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( [timestamp] => yii\behaviors\TimestampBehavior Object ( [createdAtAttribute] => created_at [updatedAtAttribute] => updated_at [value] => [attributes] => Array ( [beforeInsert] => Array ( [0] => created [1] => updated ) [beforeUpdate] => updated ) [owner] => common\models\Pages Object *RECURSION* ) ) ) ) [2] => frontend\controllers\PageController Object ( [enableCsrfValidation] => 1 [actionParams] => Array ( [alias] => pavel-belousov-kitaeved-alma-ata-grusha-u-levyh-dvorcovyh-vorot [cat] => plant_growing [subcat] => encyclopaedia ) [id] => page [module] => yii\web\Application Object ( [defaultRoute] => site [catchAll] => [controller] => frontend\controllers\SiteController Object ( [enableCsrfValidation] => 1 [actionParams] => Array ( ) [id] => site [module] => yii\web\Application Object *RECURSION* [defaultAction] => index [layout] => [action] => yii\web\ErrorAction Object ( [view] => [defaultName] => [defaultMessage] => [id] => error [controller] => frontend\controllers\SiteController Object *RECURSION* [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => ) [_view:yii\base\Controller:private] => [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( [beforeAction] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [0] => yii\filters\AccessControl Object ( [user] => yii\web\User Object ( [identityClass] => common\models\User [enableAutoLogin] => 1 [enableSession] => 1 [loginUrl] => Array ( [0] => site/login ) [identityCookie] => Array ( [name] => _identity [httpOnly] => 1 ) [authTimeout] => [absoluteAuthTimeout] => [autoRenewCookie] => 1 [idParam] => __id [authTimeoutParam] => __expire [absoluteAuthTimeoutParam] => __absolute_expire [returnUrlParam] => __returnUrl [_access:yii\web\User:private] => Array ( ) [_identity:yii\web\User:private] => [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => ) [denyCallback] => [ruleConfig] => Array ( [class] => yii\filters\AccessRule ) [rules] => Array ( [0] => yii\filters\AccessRule Object ( [allow] => 1 [actions] => [controllers] => [roles] => Array ( [0] => ? ) [ips] => [verbs] => [matchCallback] => [denyCallback] => [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => ) [1] => yii\filters\AccessRule Object ( [allow] => [actions] => [controllers] => [roles] => [ips] => [verbs] => [matchCallback] => [denyCallback] => Array ( [0] => frontend\controllers\SiteController Object *RECURSION* [1] => goHome ) [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => ) ) [only] => Array ( [0] => login ) [except] => Array ( ) [owner] => frontend\controllers\SiteController Object *RECURSION* ) [1] => beforeFilter ) [1] => ) ) ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( [access] => yii\filters\AccessControl Object ( [user] => yii\web\User Object ( [identityClass] => common\models\User [enableAutoLogin] => 1 [enableSession] => 1 [loginUrl] => Array ( [0] => site/login ) [identityCookie] => Array ( [name] => _identity [httpOnly] => 1 ) [authTimeout] => [absoluteAuthTimeout] => [autoRenewCookie] => 1 [idParam] => __id [authTimeoutParam] => __expire [absoluteAuthTimeoutParam] => __absolute_expire [returnUrlParam] => __returnUrl [_access:yii\web\User:private] => Array ( ) [_identity:yii\web\User:private] => [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => ) [denyCallback] => [ruleConfig] => Array ( [class] => yii\filters\AccessRule ) [rules] => Array ( [0] => yii\filters\AccessRule Object ( [allow] => 1 [actions] => [controllers] => [roles] => Array ( [0] => ? ) [ips] => [verbs] => [matchCallback] => [denyCallback] => [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => ) [1] => yii\filters\AccessRule Object ( [allow] => [actions] => [controllers] => [roles] => [ips] => [verbs] => [matchCallback] => [denyCallback] => Array ( [0] => frontend\controllers\SiteController Object *RECURSION* [1] => goHome ) [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => ) ) [only] => Array ( [0] => login ) [except] => Array ( ) [owner] => frontend\controllers\SiteController Object *RECURSION* ) ) ) [_homeUrl:yii\web\Application:private] => [controllerNamespace] => frontend\controllers [name] => My Application [version] => 1.0 [charset] => UTF-8 [language] => ru-RU [sourceLanguage] => en-US [layout] => main [requestedRoute] => page/page [requestedAction] => yii\base\InlineAction Object ( [actionMethod] => actionPage [id] => page [controller] => frontend\controllers\PageController Object *RECURSION* [_events:yii\base\Component:private] => Array ( ) [_behaviors:yii\base\Component:private] => ) [requestedParams] => Array ( [0] => pavel-belousov-kitaeved-alma-ata-grusha-u-levyh-dvorcovyh-vorot [1] => plant_growing [2] => encyclopaedia ) [extensions] => Array ( [kartik-v/yii2-popover-x] => Array ( [name] => kartik-v/yii2-popover-x [version] => 9999999-dev [alias] => Array ( [@kartik] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/vendor/kartik-v/yii2-popover-x ) ) [nodge/yii2-eauth] => Array ( [name] => nodge/yii2-eauth [version] => 9999999-dev [alias] => Array ( [@nodge/eauth] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/vendor/nodge/yii2-eauth/src ) [bootstrap] => nodge\eauth\Bootstrap ) [kartik-v/yii2-slider] => Array ( [name] => kartik-v/yii2-slider [version] => 9999999-dev [alias] => Array ( [@kartik] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/vendor/kartik-v/yii2-slider ) ) [yiisoft/yii2-swiftmailer] => Array ( [name] => yiisoft/yii2-swiftmailer [version] => 9999999-dev [alias] => Array ( [@yii/swiftmailer] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/vendor/yiisoft/yii2-swiftmailer ) ) [kartik-v/yii2-checkbox-x] => Array ( [name] => kartik-v/yii2-checkbox-x [version] => 9999999-dev [alias] => Array ( [@kartik] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/vendor/kartik-v/yii2-checkbox-x ) ) [kartik-v/yii2-money] => Array ( [name] => kartik-v/yii2-money [version] => 9999999-dev [alias] => Array ( [@kartik] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/vendor/kartik-v/yii2-money ) ) [kartik-v/yii2-editable] => Array ( [name] => kartik-v/yii2-editable [version] => 9999999-dev [alias] => Array ( [@kartik] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/vendor/kartik-v/yii2-editable ) ) [yiisoft/yii2-jui] => Array ( [name] => yiisoft/yii2-jui [version] => 9999999-dev [alias] => Array ( [@yii/jui] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/vendor/yiisoft/yii2-jui ) ) [yiisoft/yii2-gii] => Array ( [name] => yiisoft/yii2-gii [version] => 9999999-dev [alias] => Array ( [@yii/gii] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/vendor/yiisoft/yii2-gii ) ) [yiisoft/yii2-bootstrap] => Array ( [name] => yiisoft/yii2-bootstrap [version] => 9999999-dev [alias] => Array ( [@yii/bootstrap] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/vendor/yiisoft/yii2-bootstrap ) ) [kartik-v/yii2-grid] => Array ( [name] => kartik-v/yii2-grid [version] => 9999999-dev [alias] => Array ( [@kartik] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/vendor/kartik-v/yii2-grid ) ) [yiisoft/yii2-debug] => Array ( [name] => yiisoft/yii2-debug [version] => 9999999-dev [alias] => Array ( [@yii/debug] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/vendor/yiisoft/yii2-debug ) ) [kartik-v/yii2-widgets] => Array ( [name] => kartik-v/yii2-widgets [version] => 9999999-dev [alias] => Array ( [@kartik] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/vendor/kartik-v/yii2-widgets ) ) ) [bootstrap] => Array ( ) [state] => 3 [_runtimePath:yii\base\Application:private] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/frontend/runtime [_vendorPath:yii\base\Application:private] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/vendor [params] => Array ( [adminEmail] => ddegtyarev@gmail.com [supportEmail] => vc@prostop.ru [domen] => http://vestnik-cvetovoda.ru [site.title] => Вестник цветовода [site.dt] => - [user.passwordResetTokenExpire] => 3600 [components.cache] => Array ( [class] => yii\caching\FileCache ) [components.mail] => Array ( [class] => yii\swiftmailer\Mailer ) [components.db] => Array ( [class] => yii\db\Connection [dsn] => mysql:host=localhost;dbname=vc [username] => vc [password] => vestnik [charset] => utf8 ) ) [id] => vc-frontend [module] => [controllerMap] => Array ( ) [_basePath:yii\base\Module:private] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/frontend [_viewPath:yii\base\Module:private] => /home/vc/web/vestnik-cvetovoda.ru/public_html/frontend/views [_layoutPath:yii\base\Module:private] => [_modules:yii\base\Module:private] => Array ( ) [_components:yii\di\ServiceLocator:private] => Array ( [errorHandler] => yii\web\ErrorHandler Object ( [maxSourceLines] => 19 [maxTraceSourceLines] => 13 [errorAction] => site/error [errorView] => @yii/views/errorHandler/error.php [exceptionView] => @yii/views/errorHandler/exception.php [callStackItemView] => @yii/views/errorHandler/callStackItem.php [previousExceptionView] => @yii/views/errorHandler/previousException.php [discardExistingOutput] => 1 [memoryReserveSize] => 262144 [exception] => Exception Object *RECURSION* [_memoryReserve:yii\base\ErrorHandler:private] => 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